Are Ketogenic Diets Safe and Effective?
High-fat, low-protein, low-carbohydrate diets increase production of acid compounds called ketones. These diets trigger rapid weight loss but can have unhealthy effects. In long-term animal studies, ketogenic diets helped the animals remain lean, with normal blood sugar and low insulin levels compared to mixed Western-style meals. However, the animals eventually developed fatty liver disease and severe insulin resistance and showed signs of cell injury. The long-term effects of the diet in humans are not known. The ketogenic diet is not recommended for those who want to add lean muscle because it inhibits anabolic hormones mTOR, testosterone and IGF-1. (International Journal Environmental Research and Public Health, 11: 2092-2107)