Become a Fat Burning Machine: the Ultimate Fat Burning Cocktail
By Steve Blechman
It has been reported in the scientific literature in the past that aerobic exercise after an overnight fast accelerates the loss of body fat. Research has shown that low glycogen and insulin levels from an overnight fast cause your body to shift fuel away from carbs therefore, allowing greater mobilization of stored fat burned for energy. This strategy is basically to help you become a fat-burning machine.
A June 1, 2018, study published in the International Journal of Exercise Science reported that 10-hour fasting before a resistance training workout enhanced fat oxidation and fat burning. There are only a few studies that looked at the long-term effects of fasted cardio on body composition. The British Journal of Nutrition compared a morning run and eating an early breakfast or while in a fasted state. Not having breakfast resulted in 20% more fat being burned!
The scientific research has shown that fasted cardio could be an exciting and promising method for weight loss, fat loss, weight control, and metabolic health. The research shows that for someone with stubborn body fat, as well as someone who is lean, and wants to get ripped, then fasted cardio before breakfast can enhance more abdominal fat and intramuscular fat burning!
A study published January 7th, 2021, in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, reported that taking caffeine 30 minutes before exercise increased whole-body fat oxidation and fat burning during aerobic exercise.
Caffeine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that has been shown to increase energy, mental alertness, focus, and exercise performance. It can also reduce appetite and boost metabolism and fat burning. Research has shown that as little as 100 milligrams of caffeine, the amount present in a cup of coffee, can enhance brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and increase energy expenditure.
Over the past seven years I developed THERMO HEAT® – the most scientifically advanced thermogenic brown fat-activating fat burning supplement line ever developed! The science and cornerstone of the product line was research based on brown adipose tissue (BAT) known as brown fat!
The widely held belief that all body fat is bad is currently being heavily scrutinized, due to the recent discovery of a different type of fat in humans known as brown fat. This type of body fat can actually burn off energy in the form of heat by a process known as thermogenesis, which can ultimately reduce overall body fat.
The body has two forms of fat: white fat, or unwanted fat that can lie directly underneath the skin, and brown fat, which often is found in the shoulder blade region or the neck. Unlike white fat, brown fat is the good fat as it can help burn more calories. The more brown fat you have, the more calories you burn. Brown fat is often referred to as “the fat that makes you thin.”
Brown fat is packed with mitochondria loaded with UCP-1, the protein that uncouples fat burning with ATP (energy) production instead of converting the energy into heat via thermogenesis, making the mitochondria effectively the furnace of the cell. The emergence of brown fat as a readily available fat-burning furnace is revolutionary, but like any fire, it requires the proper kindling materials. The ability to get lean by producing extra brown fat, or enhancing the activity of existing brown fat, represents a promising way to burn fat and lose weight.
Several landmark discoveries and approaches to enhancing brown fat function are being explored at major research centers and universities worldwide, with great excitement. Brown fat research is a hot topic today.
THERMO HEAT® COCKTAIL™ synergistically combines caffeine with p-synephrine, a beta-3 androgenic receptor antagonist, but does not activate beta-1 or beta-2 receptors like other stimulants including ephedrine. It also contains kaempferol, a bioflavonoid derived from the Japanese Pagoda plant that can stimulate thyroid hormone activation and brown fat thermogenesis. L-tyrosine is synergistically added because it is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone and the neurotransmitter dopamine, which are both involved in the regulation of brown fat thermogenesis. In addition, velvet bean seed extract containing L- dopa, a precursor of dopamine in the body, is included to further enhance brown fat thermogenesis and fat burning. Garcitrin extract standardized for garcinol, is an antioxidant and effective mononamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor, is also included in THERMO HEAT® COCKTAIL™. MAO-B is the enzyme that breaks down dopamine in the body. Inhibition of MAO-B may enhance prolonged blood levels of dopamine providing greater energy, mental alertness and thermogenesis.
AML™ THERMO HEAT® COCKTAIL™ also contains 6,000 milligrams of L-citrulline, an amino acid that has been shown to increase nitric oxide production in the body, which enhances vasodilation, blood flow, energy production and exercise performance. Also, research has shown that citrulline can enhance brown fat thermogenesis, energy expenditure and fat loss.
AML™ THERMO HEAT® COCKTAIL™ also contains Paradoxine, a patented grains of paradise spice extract standardized for 6-paradol. Human studies have reported that Paradoxine (40 milligrams per day) can enhance brown fat thermogenesis, weight loss, fat loss and reduced weight circumference. Another patented spice extract from sweet peppers is included, a capsinoid called CapsiAtra. It is standardized for dihydrocapsiate, a non-pungent alkaloid without the burning sensation of capsaicin.
THERMO HEAT® COCKTAIL™ also contains a potent blend of brown fat-activating thermogenic polyphenols and bioflavonoids including: CyaniMax a standardized blackberry extract containing 40% cyanidin-3-glucoside, (C3G), quercetin, rutin, and grape skin extract (standardized for polyphenols).
As part of a calorie-restricted diet and exercise (aerobic and resistance training) program, AML™ THERMO HEAT® COCKTAIL™ taken pre-workout (preferably before fasted cardio), and THERMO HEAT® Fat-Burning Protein taken post-workout, can help enhance fat loss and preserve lean body mass when following a low-calorie, low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet. A healthy weight loss is one that enhances the reduction of body fat and preserves lean body mass while dieting. That’s why I developed the AML™ THERMO HEAT® ADVANCED DIET, NUTRITION, SUPPLEMENTATION AND EXERCISE PROGRAM for maximizing brown fat, brown fat activity and 24-hour energy expenditure!
© Published by Advanced Research Media, Inc., 2021
© Reprinted with permission from Advanced Research Media, Inc
- R M Edinburgh, H E Bradley, N-F Abdullah, S L Robinson, O J Chrzanowski-Smith, J-P Walhin, S Joanisse, K N Manolopoulos, A Philp, A Hengist, A Chabowski, FM Brodsky, F Koumanov, J A Betts, D Thompson, G A Wallis, JT Gonzalez. Lipid metabolism links nutrient-exercise timing to insulin sensitivity in men classified as overweight or obese. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, October 19, 2019, dgz104, https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz104
- Vieira AF, Costa RR, Macedo RC, Coconcelli L, Kruel LF. Effects of aerobic exercise performed in fasted v. fed state on fat and carbohydrate metabolism in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2016 Oct;116(7):1153-1164. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516003160. Epub 2016 Sep 9. PMID: 27609363.
- Frawley K, Greenwald G, Rogers RR, Petrella JK, Marshall MR. Effects of Prior Fasting on Fat Oxidation during Resistance Exercise. Int J Exerc Sci. 2018;11(2):827-833. Published 2018 Jun 1.
- Skip Breakfast Before the Gym by Gretchen Reynolds. NY Times. December 3, 2019
- Gillen JB, Percival ME, Ludzki A, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013;21(11):2249-2255. doi: 10.1002/oby.20379
- Horowitz JF, Mora-Rodriguez R, Byerley LO, Coyle EF. Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise. Am J Physiol, 1997;273(4 Pt 1):E768-E775
- Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Wilborn CD, Krieger JW, Sonmez GT. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2014;11(1):54. Published 2014 Nov 18. doi:10.1186/s12970-014-0054-7
- Paoli A, Marcolin G, Zonin F, Neri M, Sivieri A, Pacelli QF. Exercising fasting or fed to enhance fat loss? Influence of food intake on respiratory ratio and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption after a bout of endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2011;21(1):48-54
- Ramírez-Maldonado M, Jurado-Fasoli L, Del Coso J, R Ruiz J, Amaro-Gahete FJ. Caffeine increases maximal fat oxidation during a graded exercise test: is there a diurnal variation? J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2021 Jan 7;18(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12970-020-00400-6. PMID: 33413459; PMCID: PMC7792284.
- New Revolutionary Cocktail for Fat Loss by Robert Schinetsky. March 11, 2021. https://advancedmolecularlabs.com/blogs/news/new-revolutionary-cocktail-for-fat-los
- AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN: NEW Revolutionary & Advanced Scientific Formula! April 8, 2019. https://advancedmolecularlabs.com/blogs/news/aml-%E2%84%A2-thermo-heat%C2%AE-fat-burning-protein-new-revolutionary-advanced-scientific-formula
- Ochiai M, Hayashi T, Morita M, Ina K, Maeda M, Watanabe F, Morishita K. Short-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in middle-aged men. Int J Cardiol. 2012 Mar 8;155(2):257-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2010.10.004. Epub 2010 Nov 9. PMID: 21067832.
- Callis A, Magnan de Bornier B, Serrano JJ, Bellet H, Saumade R. Activity of citrulline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Study in the animal and in man. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991 Jun;41(6):660-3. PMID: 1930358.
- Nisoli, E., & Carruba, M.O. (2006). Nitric oxide and mitochondrial biogenesis. Journal of Cell Science, 119(14), 2855 LP-2862. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.03062
- Engeli, S., Janke, J., Gorzelniak, K., Böhnke, J., Ghose, N., Lindschau, C., Sharma, A. M. (2004). Regulation of the nitric oxide system in human adipose tissue Increased eNOS, 45. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M300322-JLR200
- Kersten S, Seydoux J, Peters JM, Gonzalez FJ, Desvergne B, Wahli W. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mediates the adaptive response to fasting. J Clin Invest. 1999;103(11):1489-98.
- Joffin, N., Jaubert, A., Durant, S., Bastin, J., De Bandt, J.P., Cynober, L., Moinard, C., Coumoul, X., Forest, C. and Noirez, P. (2014), Citrulline reduces glyceroneogenesis and induces fatty acid release in visceral adipose tissue from overweight rats. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 58: 2320-2330. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400507
- Steenbergen, L., Sellaro, R., Hommel, B., & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Tyrosine promotes cognitive flexibility: evidence from proactive vs. reactive control during task switching performance. Neuropsychologia, 69, 50-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.01.022
- Jongkees, B. J., Hommel, B., Kuhn, S., & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands--A review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 70, 50-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.08.010
- Belza A, Frandsen E, Kondrup J. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Jan;31(1):121-30. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803351. Epub 2006 Apr 25. PMID: 16652130.
- Olson CA, Thornton JA, Adam GE, Lieberman HR. Effects of 2 adenosine antagonists, quercetin and caffeine, on vigilance and mood. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010 Oct;30(5):573-8. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181ee0f79. PMID: 20814335.
- Pei, Y., Otieno, D., Gu, I., Lee, S.O., Parks, J. S., Schimmel, K., & Kang, H. W. (2020). Effect of quercetin on nonshivering thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 108532. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108532
- Sattanathan, K., C.K., D., R., U., & Manavalan, R. (2011). Beneficial health effects of rutin supplementation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 1, 227–231.
- Gao M, Ma Y, Liu D. Rutin suppresses palmitic acids-triggered inflammation in macrophages and blocks high fat diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in mice. Pharmaceutical Research. 2013 Nov;30(11):2940-2950. DOI: 10.1007/s11095-013-1125-1.
- Perdicaro DJ, Rodriguez Lanzi C, Gambarte Tudela J, Miatello RM, Oteiza PI, Vazquez Prieto MA. Quercetin attenuates adipose hypertrophy, in part through activation of adipogenesis in rats fed a high-fat diet. J Nutr Biochem. 2020 May;79:108352. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108352. Epub 2020 Feb 4. PMID: 32145471.
- Schubert MM, Irwin C, Seay RF, Clarke HE, Allegro D, Desbrow B. Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Dec;68(8):901-912. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1320537. Epub 2017 Apr 27. PMID: 28446037.
- Dulloo AG, Geissler CA, et al. Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49, 44-50.
- Yoneshiro, Takeshi, et al. Tea catechin and caffeine activate brown adipose tissue and increase cold-induced thermogenic capacity in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 4, 2017, pp. 873-881.
- Astrup A, Toubro S, Cannon S. Caffeine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:759–67.
- Maridakis V. et al. (2009) Sensitivity to change in cognitive performance and mood measures of energy and fatigue in response to morning caffeine alone or in combination with carbohydrate.Int J Neurosci, 119:1239-58.
- Spriet LL. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine. Sports Med. 2014;44 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S175–S184. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0257-8
- Lieberman, H.R., R.J.Wurtman, G.G.Emde, and I.L.G.Coviella 1987. The effects of caffeine and aspirin on mood and performance. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 7:315-320
- Swift, C.G., and B.Tiplady 1988. The effects of age on the response to caffeine. Psychopharmacology 94:29-31
- Brunyé T. et al. (2010) Caffeine modulates attention network function. Brain Cogn, 72:181-8.
- Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011;2011:1-doi: 10.1155/2011/482973.
- Ratamess NA, Bush JA, Kang J, et al. The effects of supplementation with P-Synephrine alone and in combination with caffeine on resistance exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2015;12:35. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0096-5.
- Ratamess NA, Bush JA, Kang J, et al. The Effects of Supplementation with p-Synephrine Alone and in Combination with Caffeine on Metabolic, Lipolytic, and Cardiovascular Responses during Resistance Exercise. J Am Coll Nutr. 2016;35(8):657-669. doi:10.1080/07315724.2016.1150223.
- Lampariello LR, Cortelazzo A, Guerranti R, Sticozzi C, Valacchi G. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 2012;2(4):331-339.
- Ruttimann Y, Schutz Y, et al. Thermogenic and metabolic effects of dopamine in healthy men. Crit Care Med 1991;19, 1030-1036.
- Chen, HN., Hsieh, CL. Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua) on cerebral infarction. Chin Med5, 34 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8546-5-34
- Periasamy M, Herrera JL, Reis FCG. Skeletal Muscle Thermogenesis and Its Role in Whole Body Energy Metabolism. Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):327-336.
- da-Silva WS, Harney JW, et al. The small polyphenolic molecule kaempferol increases cellular energy expenditure and thyroid hormone activation. Diabetes 2007;56, 767-776.
- Cases J, Romain C, Marín-Pagán C, et al. Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, PerfLoad®, Improves Physical Performance during High-Intensity Exercise: A Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover Trial. Nutrients. 2017;9(4):421. doi:10.3390/nu9040421.
- Kim J, So WY. Effects of acute grape seed extract supplementation on muscle damage after eccentric exercise: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2019;17(2):77-79. doi:10.1016/j.jesf.2019.01.001
- Kim, J., & Stebbins, C. L. (2018). Effects of Grape Seed Extract Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Athletes, 2(2017), 2017-2018. https://doi.org/10.31031/RISM.2018.02.000531
- Medina-Remón A, Casas R, Tressserra-Rimbau A, Ros E, Martínez-González MA, Fitó M, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Estruch R; PREDIMED Study Investigators. Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: a substudy of the PREDIMED trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Jan;83(1):114-128. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12986. Epub 2016 May 19. PMID: 27100393; PMCID: PMC5338147.
- Wisnuwardani RW, De Henauw S, Ferrari M, Forsner M, Gottrand F, Huybrechts I, Kafatos AG, Kersting M, Knaze V, Manios Y, Marcos A, Molnár D, Rothwell JA, Rupérez AI, Scalbert A, Widhalm K, Moreno LA, Michels N. Total Polyphenol Intake Is Inversely Associated with a Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Biomarker Ratio in European Adolescents of the HELENA Study. J Nutr. 2020 Jun 1;150(6):1610-1618. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa064. PMID: 32221603.
- Wang S, Moustaid-Moussa N, Chen L, Mo H, Shastri A, Su R, Bapat P, Kwun I, Shen CL. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity. J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Jan;25(1):1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.09.001. PMID: 24314860; PMCID: PMC3926750.
- Yu RQ, Wu XY, Zhou X, Zhu J, Ma LY. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2014 May;16(5):534-8. Chinese. PMID: 24857007.
- Lili Tian, Hongmei Ning, Weijuan Shao, Zhuolun Song, Yasaman Badakhshi, Wenhua Ling, Burton B Yang, Patricia L Brubaker, Tianru Jin, Dietary Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Attenuates High-Fat-Diet–Induced Body-Weight Gain and Impairment of Glucose Tolerance in Mice via Effects on the Hepatic Hormone FGF21, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 150, Issue 8, August 2020, Pages 2101-2111, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa140
- Guo H, Ling W, Wang Q, Liu C, Hu Y, Xia M. Cyanidin 3-glucoside protects 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H2O2- or TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance by inhibiting c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Mar 15;75(6):1393-401. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2007.11.016. Epub 2007 Dec 3. PMID: 18179781.
- Scazzocchio B, Varì R, Filesi C, D'Archivio M, Santangelo C, Giovannini C, Iacovelli A, Silecchia G, Li Volti G, Galvano F, Masella R. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside and protocatechuic acid exert insulin-like effects by upregulating PPARγ activity in human omental adipocytes. Diabetes. 2011 Sep;60(9):2234-44. doi: 10.2337/db10-1461. Epub 2011 Jul 25. PMID: 21788573; PMCID: PMC3161313.
- Badmaev V, Majeed M. Open field, physician controlled, clinical evaluation of botanical weight loss formula citrin. Presented at: Nutracon 1995: Nutriceuticals, Dietary Supplements and Functional Foods; July 11-13, 1995; Las Vegas, Nev.
- Conte AA. A non-prescription alternative on weight reduction therapy. Am J Bariatr Med.Summer 1993:17-19.; Thom E. Hydroxycitrate (HCA) in the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes.1996;20(suppl 4):48.
- Mazumder MK, Paul R, Phukan BC, Dutta A, Chakrabarty J, Bhattacharya P, Borah A. Garcinol, an effective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Med Hypotheses. 2018 Aug;117:54-58. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2018.06.009. Epub 2018 Jun 8. PMID: 30077198.
- Clinical evidence. (n.d.). LeanGard® - An Ingredient of Sabinsa. https://leangard.com/research/clinical-evidence-leangard/; GarCitrin - Clinical study | Clinical comparison with HCA, weight loss, BMI change, LBM change, appetite level change. (n.d.). GarCitrin - An Ingredient of Sabinsa | Garcinia Cambogia Extract, Bioavailable, Natural Weight Loss, Antioxidant, Garcinol, Weight Management, Obesity. https://garcitrin.com/clinical/
- Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., et al. Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. British Journal of Nutrition; (2013) 110(4), pp. 733-738
- Sugita J, Yoneshiro T, et al; Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology; 2014, 60(1): 22-27
- Galgani JE, Ravussin E. Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;92(5):1089-1093. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.30036.
- Bhardwaj, R. K., Glaeser, H., Becquemont, L., Klotz, U., Gupta, S. K., & Fromm, M. F. (2002). Piperine, a major constituent of black pepper, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 302(2), 645–650. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.102.034728
- McNamara FN, Randall A, Gunthorpe MJ. Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). Br J Pharmacol. 2005;144(6):781-790. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706040
- Lee, S. A., Hong, S. S., Han, X. H., Hwang, J. S., Oh, G. J., Lee, K. S., Ro, J. S. (2005). Piperine from the fruits of Piper longum with inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like activity. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 53(7), 832-835.
- Yoneshiro T and Saito M. Transient receptor potential activated brown fat thermogenesis as a target of food ingredients for obesity management. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2013; 16, 625-631.
- Rosanoff A, Weaver CM, Rude RK. Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: are the health consequences underestimated? Nutr Rev. 2012 Mar;70(3):153-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00465.x. Epub 2012 Feb 15. PMID: 22364157.
- Oberleithner H, Callies C, Kusche-Vihrog K, et al. Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(8):2829-doi:10.1073/pnas.0813069106
- Howard, A. B., Alexander, R. W., & Taylor, W. R. (1995). Effects of magnesium on nitric oxide synthase activity in endothelial cells. The American Journal of Physiology, 269(3 Pt 1), C612-8. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.1995.269.3.C612
- Snitker S, Fujishima Y, Shen H, et al. Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):45-50. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26561
- Farhat, G., Drummond, S., and Al‐Dujaili, E. A. S. (2017) Polyphenols and Their Role in Obesity Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. Phytother. Res., 31: 1005-1018. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5830.
- Kohei TAKEDA, Masanao MACHIDA, Akiko KOHARA, Naomi OMI, Tohru TAKEMASA, Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on Fatigue and Exercise Performance in Mice, Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 2011, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 246-250, September 09, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.57.246
- Anna R Bryniarski, Gretchen A Meyer. Brown Fat Promotes Muscle Growth During Regeneration. J Orthop Res 2019 Aug;37(8):1817-1826. Epub 2019 May 17. doi: 10.1002/jor.24324.
- Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Ana L Ricci-Vitor et al. Appetite Is Suppressed After Full-Body Resistance Exercise Compared With Split-Body Resistance Exercise: The Potential Influence of Lactate and Autonomic Modulation. J Strength Cond Res 2021 Sep 1;35(9):2532-2540. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003192
- De-Huang Guo, Masaki Yamamoto, et al. Beige adipocytes mediate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of subcutaneous fat in obese mice. Nature, volume12, Article number: 4623 (2021) Published: 30 July 2021
- Neuroscientists Discover Beige Fat “Indispensable” in Protecting Brain From Dementia. https://scitechdaily.com/neuroscientists-discover-beige-fat-indispensable-in-protecting-brain-from-dementia/
- Yifei Bian, Jiaqi Lei et al. Kaempferol Reduces Obesity, Prevents Intestinal Inflammation, and Modulates Gut Microbiota in High-fat Diet Mice: Kaempferol reduce inflammation and dysbacteria. J Nutr Biochem 2021 Aug 19;108840. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108840. Online ahead of print.
- Tobias Becher, Srikanth Palanisamy et al. Brown adipose tissue is associated with cardiometabolic health. Nat Med 2021 Jan;27(1):58-65. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1126-7. Epub 2021 Jan 4.
- Study of 50,000 people finds brown fat may protect against numerous chronic diseases. Rockefeller University, January 4, 2021. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210104114103.htm
- Patients who are overweight or obese at risk of more severe COVID-19, study finds. Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, April 16, 2021. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210415114122.htm
- Nerys M Astbury, Carmen Piernas and Min Gao, The Conversation. Severe COVID in young people can mostly be explained by obesity, new study shows. April 29, 2021. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-04-severe-covid-young-people-obesity.html
- Maria Chondronikola and Labros S. Sidossis. Human brown fat, adiposity, and cardiometabolic health: New pieces to the puzzle. Cell Rep Med 2021 Jul 20; 2(7): 100356. Published online 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100356
- Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita et al. Prolonged Treatment with Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) Extract Recruits Adaptive Thermogenesis and Reduces Body Fat in Humans with Low Brown Fat Activity. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2021;67(2):99-104. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.67.99
- Cheryl Cero, Hannah J Lea et al.β3-Adrenergic receptors regulate human brown/beige adipocyte lipolysis and thermogenesis. JCI Insight 2021 Jun 8;6(11):e139160. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.139160.
- Youngshim Choi, Liqing Yu et al. Natural Bioactive Compounds as Potential Browning Agents in White Adipose Tissue. Pharm Res 2021 Apr;38(4):549-567. doi: 10.1007/s11095-021-03027-7. Epub 2021 Mar 30.
- Federica Scarano, Micaela Gliozzi et al. Potential of Nutraceutical Supplementation in the Modulation of White and Brown Fat Tissues in Obesity-Associated Disorders: Role of Inflammatory Signalling. Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 25;22(7):3351. doi: 10.3390/ijms22073351
- Winifred W Yau, Kiraely Adam Wong et al. Chronic cold exposure induces autophagy to promote fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial turnover, and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. iScience 2021 Apr 15;24(5):102434. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.102434
- Pengyu Fu, Rongxin Zhu et al. Aerobic exercise promotes the functions of brown adipose tissue in obese mice via a mechanism involving COX2 in the VEGF signaling pathway. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jun 3;18(1):56. doi: 10.1186/s12986-021-00581-0
- Lissette Duarte, Naschla Gasaly et al. Polyphenols and their anti-obesity role mediated by the gut microbiota: a comprehensive review. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Jun;22(2):367-388. doi: 10.1007/s11154-020-09622-0. Epub 2021 Jan 2.
- Alejandro Álvarez-Artime, Belén García-Soler et al.Emerging Roles for Browning of White Adipose Tissue in Prostate Cancer Malignant Behaviour. Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11):5560. doi: 10.3390/ijms22115560
- Prasanna Santhanam, Steven P Rowe et al. A systematic review of imaging studies of human brown adipose tissue. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Jul;1495(1):5-23. doi: 10.1111/nyas.14579. Epub 2021 Feb 18.
- Lachlan Van Schaik, Christine Kettle et al. Effects of Caffeine on Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Metabolic Homeostasis: A Review. Front Neurosci 2021 Feb 4;15:621356. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.621356. eCollection 2021.
- Sarah Christine Sentis, Rebecca Oelkrug et al. Thyroid hormones in the regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Endocr Connect 2021 Feb;10(2):R106-R115. doi: 10.1530/EC-20-0562.
- Andreas G Wibmer, Tobias Becher et al. Brown adipose tissue is associated with healthier body fat distribution and metabolic benefits independent of regional adiposity. Cell Rep Med 2021 Jul 7;2(7):100332. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100332
- L Van Schaik, C Kettle et al. Stimulatory, but not anxiogenic, doses of caffeine act centrally to activate interscapular brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in anesthetized male rats. Sci Rep 2021 Jan 8;11(1):113. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-80505-9
- Hong-Jin Chen, Ting Meng et al. The Role of Brown Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 May 25;12:652246. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.652246
- Karla J Suchacki and Roland H Stimson. Nutritional Regulation of Human Brown Adipose Tissue. Nutrients 2021 May 21;13(6):1748. doi: 10.3390/nu13061748
- Milena Monfort-Pires, Mueez U-Din et al. Short Dietary Intervention with Olive Oil Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Lean but not Overweight Subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan 23;106(2):472-484. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa824
- Rahel Catherina Loeliger, Claudia Irene Maushart et al. Relation of diet-induced thermogenesis to brown adipose tissue activity in healthy men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan 1;320(1):E93-E101. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00237.2020. Epub 2020 Nov 23.
- Yunlu Sheng, Fan Xia et al. Differential Responses of White Adipose Tissue and Brown Adipose Tissue to Calorie Restriction During Aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Feb 25;76(3):393-399. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glaa070
- Rafael C Gaspar, José R Pauli et al. An update on brown adipose tissue biology: a discussion of recent findings. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 1;320(3):E488-E495. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00310.2020. Epub 2021 Jan 18.
- Long Cheng, Jingkang Wang et al. Brown and beige adipose tissue: a novel therapeutic strategy for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipocyte 2021 Dec;10(1):48-65. doi: 10.1080/21623945.2020.1870060
- Tobias Becher, Srikanth Palanisamy et al. Brown adipose tissue is associated with cardiometabolic health. Nat Med 2021 Jan;27(1):58-65. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1126-7. Epub 2021 Jan 4.