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Dopamine is a fight-or-flight hormone and brain chemical that helps send signals between brain nerve cells. Mental arousal to exercise, stress and sexual activity triggers the release of dopamine, which makes people feel good and psyches them up. German scientists from the University of Schleswig-Holstein showed that increases in dopamine activation boosts calorie loss by brown fat and increases in mitochondria (powerhouses of the cell). Exercise increases dopamine levels, which promotes increased calorie loss in mitochondria and the activity of brown fat. L-tyrosine, caffeine and Mucuna pruriens (containing L-dopa) also increase dopamine. (Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, 58: 57-66, 2017)