Golfers and Other Athletes Suffer Joint Injuries
By Robert Schinetsky
Tiger Woods, yet again, turned the golf world on its head as he announced he is playing The Masters 2022.
The Masters is the first of golf’s four men’s major championships, and it, more than any other major, is the one that players (and fans alike) care about
One of the most accomplished golfers of all-time (including 15 major championships and 5 Masters Championships), Tiger has had more than a fair share of setbacks, surgeries, injuries, and off-course “complications.” On July 23, 2007 Tiger ruptured his anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). On June 24, 2008 he underwent ACL repair surgery.
Most recently, Woods was involved in a single-car accident that left the athlete with a barely fractured right leg, that nearly resulted in amputation.
He also hasn’t played professional golf since 2020.
Suffice it to say that playing in The Masters is a testament to Tiger’s resilience and unmatched competitive tenacity.
Injuries are not uncommon to elite athletes though.
Just a few months back, Joe Burrow appeared in the Super Bowl, a little over a year after rupturing his ACL and MCL.
Injuries, even seemingly minor ones, can lead to accelerated degradation of the vital structures of joints. This in turn leads to osteoarthritis, joint pain, functional limitations, and an overall decrease in quality of life.
It is, thus, imperative to take the necessary steps to support the health and integrity of your joints throughout your life. Popping a few caps of glucosamine or chondroitin after your joints are already ground to dust won’t do much good. You need to be focused on taking care of your joints today!
That’s precisely why we created AML Joint Cocktail.
What’s in AML Joint Cocktail?
Collagen is the primary structural protein of the body. It’s literally the stuff that holds you together and gives you structure.
No doubt you’ve seen a litany of collagen products on the market, and they’re usually used as part of a hair, skin and nails supplement, including AML Hair Skin & Nails Cocktail.
But, collagen also plays a role in the health of your joints.
Unfortunately, the body’s endogenous production of collagen dwindles with age, which is part of the reason skin starts to sag/wrinkle, hair grows slower (and thins), recovery is slower, etc.
Hydrolyzed collagen has been demonstrated to be an effective means for supporting collagen production in the body.
More specifically, when collagen peptides are consumed, they are readily absorbed, accumulate in cartilage tissue, and stimulate production of type II collagen (the major protein in articular cartilage) and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of cartilage.[2,3,4]
Additional studies have demonstrated that consuming between 7-10 g of collagen hydrolysate per day for 3 months may lead to improvements in measurements of joint health or function and improvements in leg strength.[5,6,7]
10 grams of collagen supplementation per day has also been found to increase collagen within the knee, too!
Moreover, a 24-week study in healthy, young athletes given 10 grams of hydrolyzed collagen per day (the same dose in AML Joint cocktail) showed improvements of joint health. Researchers concluded the study by noting that collagen may “possibly reduce the risk of joint deterioration in a high-risk group.”
As we’re all aware, athletes (both young and old) put tremendous stress on their bodies, including their joints. Collagen supplementation may help support strong healthy joints and reduce the risk of activity-related pain and degradation.
Added Vitamin C!
Vitamin C is a well-known vitamin, highly regarded for its potent antioxidant capabilities.
It just so happens that this essential vitamin also plays a role in collagen synthesis.
Specifically, studies show that ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and the amino acid proline (one of the most abundant amino acids in hydrolyzed collagen) can increase collagen production and engineered ligament mechanics.[32,33]
Preclinical studies have also found that vitamin C has the potential to accelerate bone healing after a fracture, increase type I collagen synthesis, and reduce oxidative stress parameters.
Glucosamine and Chondroitin
Glucosamine and chondroitin are, quite simply, the two compounds most closely associated with joint health. In fact, if you’ve ever used (or considered using) a joint supplement before, it almost certainly contained both of these ingredients.
So, what exactly are glucosamine and chondroitin?
Glucosamine is an amino sugar found naturally in the cartilage and fluid around the joints, and supplementation with glucosamine has been shown to improve joint health, particularly in regards to joint function, and other related clinical outcomes[9,10,11]. Researchers posit that glucosamine supports joint health by way of its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on articular cartilage and bone.
Additionally, epidemiological studies note lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality rates in individuals who were supplementing with glucosamine.[13,14]†
In fact, one cohort study involving over 77,000 people who averaged 10 years of glucosamine use were found to have five-year mortality rates that were significantly lower than non-glucosamine users.
To top it off, recent research has even found that glucosamine supplementation may benefit gut health.
You may be surprised to learn that most of ingested glucosamine is metabolized by members of the intestinal microbiota before it is absorbed into the bloodstream, and researchers believe its properties of glucosamine that the ingredient can promote gut health.
Similar to glucosamine, chondroitin is a naturally occurring substance in joints that is formed from sugar chains. It belongs to a family of heteropolysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans, or GAGs, which serve as important components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, and it helps the body maintain fluid and flexibility in the joints.
Chondroitin also aids[17,18]:
- resistance and elasticity to articular cartilage
- inhibiting the synthesis of inflammatory mediators (including cyclooxygenase-2 and metalloproteinases) and catabolic enzymes
- stimulating the synthesis of cartilage matrix components
- reducing chondrocyte apoptosis
A 2015 Cochrane review of the literature pertaining to chondroitin supplementation in regards to joint pain found it may:
- improve pain slightly in the short-term (< 6 months)†
- improve knee pain by 20%†
- improves quality of life as measured by Lequesne’s index (combined measure of pain, function, and disability);
- slightly slows down the narrowing of joint space (assessed via x-ray) of the affected joint.
Glucosamine + Chondroitin > Either Alone
Not only are glucosamine and chondroitin immensely popular in their own right, the combination of the two ingredients is frequently used in dietary supplements and it has been widely researched.
One study from 2015 showed that combining 1,500 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride with 1,200 mg of chondroitin sulfate helped enhance knee health, stiffness, and swelling compared with 200 mg of celecoxib, an NSAID typically used for osteoarthritis pain.†
Another study from the same year found that the combo of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements were effective for joint health and function.
A new study published in Advances in Rheumatology found that the combination of Glucosamine Sulfate (1500mg/day) + Chondroitin Sulfate (1200mg/day) -- the same doses used in AML Joint Cocktail -- improved symptoms of knee health more effectively than placebo.†
Beyond joint health support, the combination of glucosamine + chondroitin has been found to lower inflammatory biomarkers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP).†
One last thing to mention is that AML Joint Cocktail opts for the more bioavailable form of glucosamine in glucosamine sulfate over glucosamine hydrochloride.[24,25]†
As an added bonus, the sulfate component of glucosamine sulfate is noted to increase sulfate concentrations in the body, which may help counter deficiencies in inorganic sulfur, caused by a low level of dietary proteins. FYI, sulfate is essential for the synthesis of proteoglycans that are important for chondrocyte metabolism
MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) is another popular joint health supplement, and one that is becoming increasingly more commonplace alongside glucosamine and chondroitin.
MSM is a naturally occurring organosulfur molecule as well as a methyl donor. It is the first oxidized metabolite of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO).
DMSO, itself, has been extensively studied for its unique biological properties including its antioxidant capabilities.
A 2017 review of MSM supplementation noted that several improvements in health-related measures, including oxidative stress and physical function.[26,27,28,29]
Moreover, MSM is a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) approved substance, is well tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, and possesses few known and mild side effects.
In addition to being studied on its own for joint health support and pain relief, MSM has also been studied in combination with glucosamine and chondroitin.
A 2017 study compared MSM + Glucosamine + Chondroitin to placebo as well as a combination of Glucosamine + Chondroitin and found greater benefits from the trio of ingredient for joint health and function.
TurmiPure Gold Turmeric
Turmeric is a spice well known for its brilliant yellow color and palate-tantalizing properties, particularly in Indian cuisine.
The spice is loaded with bioactive compounds, curcumin in particular, which has received a great deal of attention in recent years for its potent anti-inflammatory properties.
The issue with turmeric, curcumin especially, is poor bioavailability.
This has led to various turmeric and curcumin preparations being developed which package the spice alongside black pepper extracts (such as Bioperine) to enhance bioavailability and as a result effectiveness.
TurmiPure Gold is an enhanced turmeric extract formulation, which offers very high assimilation compared to commercially available turmeric preparations standardized to 95% curcuminoids.
Each 300 mg dose TurmiPure Gold® (the same dose used in AML Joint Cocktail) contains 90 mg of curcuminoids (including 69 mg of curcumin) formulated in a patent pending water-dispersible colloidal suspension.
This hydro-dispersible formulation allows curcuminoids to penetrate much more easily into the bloodstream and cells.
Pharmacokinetic (PK) data shows that you would need either 1922mg of a standard turmeric extract (95% curcuminoids), or 2264mg of a turmeric extract (95% curcuminoids-piperine combination) to equal the bioavailability or bioactivity found with 300mg of TurmiPure Gold®.
Now, as for the reason that turmeric is used in joint formulas, it possesses impressive joint health and function properties.[37,38,39]
Turmeric contains bioactive compounds in curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin, and turmeric essential oils which are known to modify NF-κB signaling, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin production and phospholipase A2, COX-2, and 5-LOX activities
Turmeric and its components have also been reported to exert many beneficial health effects.
Furthermore, a 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials supports the use of turmeric and curcumin.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is found prevalently in both synovial fluid and articular cartilage. Classified as a “humectant,” HA is a substance that retains moisture, especially in the skin and joints.
Studies using a range of doses between 80-200mg have found that hyaluronic acid may significantly improve and enhance joint health and function.[40,41,42]
Hyaluronic acid has also been studied in combination with glucosamine and chondroitin and found to be effective for enhanced knee health and physical function.[43,44,45]
Boswellia serrata is a plant native to India that has been used for centuries in traditional medicine.
Boswellic acid is the active ingredient in Boswellia serrata, and 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is the one boswellic acid with strong pharmacological activity.
For instance, AKBA has been shown to have a powerful inhibitory effect on 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX).[46,47]
AML Joint Cocktail contains the research-supported dose of 100 mg of ApresFlex -- a premium-grade boswellia serrata extract containing 20% AKBA from PLT Health Solutions.
Clinical studies using ApresFlex have shown a 20% reduction in pain scores at 5 days.†
Regarding safety, studies indicate that Boswellia serrata extracts do not have toxic side effects, even at higher doses.
Also Works Well With MSM!
Boswellia serrata extract has also been studied in combination with another very popular joint health supplement -- MSM.
A 2016 compared the combo of boswellia serrata + MSM to glucosamine sulfate.
Researchers noted that the combo of MSM + boswellia was comparable to glucosamine in terms of joint health and function and recovery.
Ginger Root Extract
Similar to its botanical cousin (turmeric), ginger is another common cooking spice, especially in Asian cuisine. In fact, both turmeric and ginger (Zingiber officinale) belong to the Zingiberaceae and have a long history of use for joint health. Ginger, in particular, is rich in bioactives, including gingerols, shogaols, zingerone, and paradol, and has been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting:
- COX-1 and COX-2
- nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)
- 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)
Ginger supplementation has been found to improve joint health.
A 2015 review by Wilson et al also noted that ginger may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running.
As you’re likely aware, NSAIDs are commonly used to treat both muscle pain from athletic activity as well as joint pain. However, chronic use of NSAIDs is known to bring with it unwanted side effects (including GI pain, GI hemorrhaging, nephropathy, hepatitis, and anaphylactic reactions).
Ginger provides a more natural option for pain relief that doesn’t present with the same severity of side effects compared to NSAIDs.
One key difference you may have noticed between Turmeric and Ginger is that turmeric (and curcumin) do not modulate COX-1 activity.
For these reasons, stacking the two ingredients together (as we’ve done in AML Joint Cocktail) can provide complementary activities.
In fact, research shows that the combination of turmeric + ginger + black pepper may improve the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in patients with chronic knee injuries.
UC-II contains a patented form of undenatured type II collagen derived from chicken sternum.
Studies to date have shown that undenatured type II collagen improves symptoms of joint health.[54,55,56,57]
Other research indicates that UC-II supplementation may improve knee joint extension as well as potentially increase the period of pain free strenuous exertion and alleviate the joint pain that occasionally arises from such activities.
Interestingly, supplementation with UC-II collagen (40mg/day) was found in a study to reduce visual analog scores of pain by 40% after 90 days as compared to 15.4% in those receiving glucosamine + chondroitin.
UC-II supplementation at 40mg/day also reduced Lequesne's functional index score by 20% as compared to 6% in the glucosamine + chondroitin group at the end of 90-day study.
A more recent 2016 study found that 40mg of UC-II supplementation improved knee joint symptoms in knee osteoarthritis subjects compared to placebo as well as glucosamine + chondroitin and was well-tolerated.
AML Joint Cocktail contains the full research-backed 40mg dose of UC-II in every serving!
The final ingredient in AML Joint Cocktail is none other than the “sunshine vitamin” -- vitamin D.
While typically thought of more frequently in regards to bone health or immune function, vitamin D also plays a role in joint health.
As you likely are aware, deficiencies in this essential vitamin (and hormone precursor) are linked to increased sickness, lower testosterone levels, muscle weakness, soft/brittle bones, and a variety of other unwanted outcomes.
As it turns out, deficiencies in vitamin D are also associated with greater joint pain, increased progression of radiographic osteoarthritis, and poor quadriceps function.[62,63]
Studies have found that higher vitamin D intake is associated with a significantly better architecture of the cartilage of the knee.
Vitamin D supplementation has also been reported to decrease pain and improve knee function.
AML Joint Cocktail supplies 2,000IU Vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol) to support joint health, bone health, hormone production, and immune function.
Don’t wait until it’s too late to start taking care of your joints.
Start taking care of them today by staying active, eating well, and using proper form when lifting.
For added joint health support, check out AML Joint Cocktail which contains an extensive combination of joint support supplements backed by human research.†
A serving of AML Joint Cocktail supplies 17 grams of ingredients. Most joint formulas on the market supply (at most) 3-4 grams of active ingredients.
To put this into perspective, if AML Joint Cocktail was in capsule form, you would have to take over 20 tablets or capsules to get the same clinical effective dosages found in one serving of our powdered joint supplement!†
Besides allowing for a more robustly formulated product, making Joint Cocktail into a powder allows it to be mixed with water for ease of digestion as well as efficient absorption and assimilation. Many individuals have difficulty swallowing capsules, and there is a lag in digestion and absorption of ingredients in capsules on account of the body having to digest the capsule itself first before it can begin to utilize the active ingredients contained within it.
Taking everything together (clinically effective dosages, synergism, multi-tiered approach to joint health, etc.), AML Joint Cocktail can be considered the most powerful, comprehensive, and research-backed joint support product ever developed!†
©Published by Advanced Research Media, Inc. 2022
©Reprinted with permission from Advanced Research Media, Inc.
† These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
These statements are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
- Oesser S, Adam M, Babel W, Seifert J. Oral administration of (14)C labeled gelatin hydrolysate leads to an accumulation of radioactivity in cartilage of mice (C57/BL). J Nutr 1999; 129:1891-5
- Oesser S, Seifert J. Stimulation of type II collagen biosynthesis and secretion in bovine chondrocytes cultured with degraded collagen. Cell Tissue Res 2003;311:393-9
- Oesser S, Seifert J. Impact of collagen fragments on the synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage tissue. Orthopaedische Praxis 2005:565-8
- Krug E. Zur unterstützenden Therapie bei Osteo- und Chondro- pathien [On supportive therapy for osteo- and chondropathy]. Z Erfahrungsheilkunde 1979;11:930-8
- Adam M. Welche Wirkung haben Gelatinepräparate? Therapie der Osteoarthrose [What effects do gelatin preparations have?]. Therapiewoche 1991;41:2456-6
- Zuckley L, Angelopoulou K, Carpenter MR, et al. Collagen hydrolysate improves joint function in adults with mild symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(Suppl):S153-S4
- Kristine L. Clark, Wayne Sebastianelli, Klaus R. Flechsenhar, Douglas F. Aukermann, Felix Meza, Roberta L. Millard, John R. Deitch, Paul S. Sherbondy & Ann Albert (2008) 24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain, Current Medical Research and Opinion, 24:5, 1485-1496, DOI: 10.1185/030079908X291967
- Bruyere, O.; Pavelka, K.; Rovati, L.C.; Gatterova, J.; Giacovelli, G.; Olejarova, M.; Deroisy, R.; Reginster, J.Y. Total joint replacement after glucosamine sulphate treatment in knee osteoarthritis: Results of a mean 8-year observation of patients from two previous 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2008, 16, 254–260
- Herrero-Beaumont, G.; Ivorra, J.A.; Del Carmen Trabado, M.; Blanco, F.J.; Benito, P.; Martin-Mola, E.; Paulino, J.; Marenco, J.L.; Porto, A.; Laffon, A.; et al. Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator. Arthritis Rheum. 2007, 56, 555–567.
- Zhu, X.; Wu, D.; Sang, L.; Wang, Y.; Shen, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Chu, M.; Jiang, L. Comparative effectiveness of glucosamine, chondroitin, acetaminophen or celecoxib for the treatment of knee and/or hip osteoarthritis: A network meta-analysis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 2018, 36, 595–602.
- Henrotin, Y.; Mobasheri, A.; Marty, M. Is there any scientific evidence for the use of glucosamine in the management of human osteoarthritis? Arthritis Res. 2012, 14, 201
- Ma H, Li X, Zhou T, et al. Glucosamine Use, Inflammation, and Genetic Susceptibility, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study in UK Biobank. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(4):719-725. doi:10.2337/dc19-1836
- Ma H, Li X, Sun D, et al. Association of habitual glucosamine use with risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective study in UK Biobank. BMJ. 2019;365:l1628. Published 2019 May 14. doi:10.1136/bmj.l1628; Bell, G.A.; Kantor, E.D.; Lampe, J.W.; Shen, D.D.; White, E. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin in relation to mortality. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2012, 27, 593–603.
- Pocobelli, G.; Kristal, A.R.; Patterson, R.E.; Potter, J.D.; Lampe, J.W.; Kolar, A.; Evans, I.; White, E. Total mortality risk in relation to use of less-common dietary supplements. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010, 91, 1791–1800.
- Moon, J.M.; Finnegan, P.; Stecker, R.A.; Lee, H.; Ratliff, K.M.; Jäger, R.; Purpura, M.; Slupsky, C.M.; Marco, M.L.; Wissent, C.J.; Theodosakis, J.; Kerksick, C.M. Impact of Glucosamine Supplementation on Gut Health. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072180
- Henrotin Y, Mathy M, Sanchez C, Lambert C. Chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis: from in vitro studies to clinical recommendations. Ther Adv Musculoskelet 2010;2(6):335–48.
- Hardingham T. Chondroitin sulfate and joint disease. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1998;6(Suppl A):3–5.
- Singh JA, Noorbaloochi S, MacDonald R, Maxwell LJ. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;1:CD005614. Published 2015 Jan 28. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005614.pub2
- Hochberg MC, Martel-Pelletier J, Monfort J, Möller I, Castillo JR, Arden N, Berenbaum F, Blanco FJ, Conaghan PG, Doménech G, Henrotin Y, Pap T, Richette P, Sawitzke A, du Souich P, Pelletier JP; MOVES Investigation Group. Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxib. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jan;75(1):37-44. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206792. Epub 2015 Jan 14. PMID: 25589511; PMCID: PMC4717399.
- Zeng C, Wei J, Li H, Wang YL, Xie DX, Yang T, Gao SG, Li YS, Luo W, Lei GH. Effectiveness and safety of Glucosamine, chondroitin, the two in combination, or celecoxib in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 18;5:16827. doi: 10.1038/srep16827. PMID: 26576862; PMCID: PMC4649492.
- Lomonte, A.B.V., Gimenez, E., da Silva, A.C. et al. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with a new formulation of a fixed-dose combination of glucosamine sulfate and bovine chondroitin: a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial. Adv Rheumatol 61, 7 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42358-021-00165-9
- Kantor ED, Lampe JW, Navarro SL, Song X, Milne GL, White E. Associations between glucosamine and chondroitin supplement use and biomarkers of systemic inflammation. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Jun;20(6):479-85. doi: 10.1089/acm.2013.0323. Epub 2014 Apr 16. PMID: 24738579; PMCID: PMC4048982.
- Eugene J. Kucharz, Volodymyr Kovalenko, Sándor Szántó, Olivier Bruyère, Cyrus Cooper & Jean-Yves Reginster (2016) A review of glucosamine for knee osteoarthritis: why patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate should be differentiated from other glucosamines to maximize clinical outcomes, Current Medical Research and Opinion, 32:6, 997-1004, DOI: 1185/03007995.2016.1154521
- Meulyzer M, Vachon P, Beaudry F, Vinardell T, Richard H, Beauchamp G, Laverty S. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of glucosamine and synovial fluid levels following administration of glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine hydrochloride. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 Sep;16(9):973-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2008.01.006. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PMID: 18295513.
- Lopez H.L. Nutritional interventions to prevent and treat osteoarthritis. Part II: Focus on micronutrients and supportive nutraceuticals. PM R. 2012;4:S155–S168. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.02.023.
- Van der Merwe M., Bloomer R.J. The influence of methylsulfonylmethane on inflammation-associated cytokine release before and following strenuous exercise. J. Sports Med. 2016;2016:7498359. doi: 10.1155/2016/7498359.
- Barrager E., Veltmann J.R.J., Schauss A.G., Schiller R.N. A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2002;8:167– doi: 10.1089/107555302317371451.
- Butawan M, Benjamin RL, Bloomer RJ. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement. Nutrients. 2017;9(3):290. Published 2017 Mar 16. doi:10.3390/nu9030290
- Lubis AMT, Siagian C, Wonggokusuma E, Marsetyo AF, Setyohadi B. Comparison of Glucosamine-Chondroitin Sulfate with and without Methylsulfonylmethane in Grade I-II Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Acta Med Indones. 2017 Apr;49(2):105-111. PMID: 28790224.
- McAlindon TE, Nuite M, Krishnan N, Ruthazer R, Price LL, Burstein D, Griffith J, Flechsenhar K. Change in knee osteoarthritis cartilage detected by delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following treatment with collagen hydrolysate: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2011;19:399–405.
- Shaw G, Lee-Barthel A, Ross ML, Wang B, Baar K. Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(1):136-143. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.138594
- Lis DM, Baar K. Effects of Different Vitamin C-Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2019 Sep 1;29(5):526-531. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0385. PMID: 30859848.
- DePhillipo NN, Aman ZS, Kennedy MI, Begley JP, Moatshe G, LaPrade RF. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplementation on Collagen Synthesis and Oxidative Stress After Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(10):2325967118804544. Published 2018 Oct 25. doi:10.1177/2325967118804544
- Calderón-Pérez L, Llauradó E, Companys J, et al. Acute Effects of Turmeric Extracts on Knee Joint Pain: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Food. 2021;24(4):436-440. doi:10.1089/jmf.2020.0074
- Henrotin Y, Malaise M, Wittoek R, de Vlam K, Brasseur JP, Luyten FP, Jiangang Q, Van den Berghe M, Uhoda R, Bentin J, De Vroey T, Erpicum L, Donneau AF, Dierckxsens Y. Bio-optimized Curcuma longa extract is efficient on knee osteoarthritis pain: a double-blind multicenter randomized placebo controlled three-arm study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Jul 27;21(1):179. doi: 10.1186/s13075-019-1960-5. PMID: 31351488; PMCID: PMC6661105.
- Daily JW, Yang M, Park S. Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. J Med Food. 2016;19(8):717-729. doi:10.1089/jmf.2016.3705
- Kalman DS, Heimer M, Valdeon A, Schwartz H, Sheldon E. Effect of a natural extract of chicken combs with a high content of hyaluronic acid (Hyal-Joint) on pain relief and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. 2008 Jan 21;7:3. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-7-3. PMID: 18208600; PMCID: PMC2245974.
- Oe M, Tashiro T, Yoshida H, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review. Nutr J. 2016;15:11. Published 2016 Jan 27. doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0128-2
- Jensen GS, Attridge VL, Lenninger MR, Benson KF. Oral intake of a liquid high-molecular-weight hyaluronan associated with relief of chronic pain and reduced use of pain medication: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind pilot study. J Med Food. 2015 Jan;18(1):95-101. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2013.0174. PMID: 25415767; PMCID: PMC4281855.
- Humbert P, Mikosinki J, Benchikhi H, Allaert FA. Efficacy and safety of a gauze pad containing hyaluronic acid in treatment of leg ulcers of venous or mixed origin: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Int Wound J. 2013 Apr;10(2):159-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2012.00957.x. Epub 2012 Mar 8. PMID: 22405094.
- Ramos-Torrecillas J, García-Martínez O, De Luna-Bertos E, Ocaña-Peinado FM, Ruiz C. Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the treatment and care of pressure ulcers. Biol Res Nurs. 2015 Mar;17(2):152-8. doi: 10.1177/1099800414535840. Epub 2014 May 20. PMID: 24848975.
- Wang SJ, Wang YH, Huang LC. The effect of oral low molecular weight liquid hyaluronic acid combination with glucosamine and chondroitin on knee osteoarthritis patients with mild knee pain: An 8-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Feb 5;100(5):e24252. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000024252. PMID: 33592868; PMCID: PMC7870173.
- Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J, et al. Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992;26:1143–1146.
- Sailer ER, Subramanian LR, Rall B, et al. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA): structure requirements or binding and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Br J Pharmacol. 1996;117:615–618. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.1996.tb15235.x.
- Daily JW, Yang M, Park S. Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. J Med Food. 2016;19(8):717-729. doi:10.1089/jmf.2016.3705
- Menon P, Perayil J, Fenol A, Rajan Peter M, Lakshmi P, Suresh R. Effectiveness of ginger on pain following periodontal surgery - A randomized cross-over clinical trial. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2021;12(1):65-69. doi:10.1016/j.jaim.2020.05.003
- Wilson, P. B. (2015). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an Analgesic and Ergogenic Aid in Sport. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(10), 2980–2995. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000001098
- Heidari-Beni M, Moravejolahkami AR, Gorgian P, Askari G, Tarrahi MJ, Bahreini-Esfahani N. Herbal formulation "turmeric extract, black pepper, and ginger" versus Naproxen for chronic knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2020 Aug;34(8):2067-2073. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6671. Epub 2020 Mar 16. PMID: 32180294.
- Notarnicola A, Maccagnano G, Moretti L, et al. Methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee arthritis: Randomized trial. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016;29(1):140-146. doi:10.1177/0394632015622215
- Barnett ML, Kremer JM, St Clair EW, Clegg DO, Furst D, Weisman M, Fletcher MJ, Chasan-Taber S, Finger E, Morales A, Le CH, Trentham DE. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral type II collagen. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(2):290–7.
- Barnett ML, Combitchi D, Trentham DE. A pilot trial of oral type II collagen in the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39(4):623–8.
- Trentham DE. Evidence that type II collagen feeding can induce a durable therapeutic response in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996;778:306–14.
- Trentham DE, Dynesius-Trentham RA, Orav EJ, Combitchi D, Lorenzo C, Sewell KL, Hafler DA, Weiner HL. Effects of oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis. Science. 1993;261(5129):1727–30.
- Bagchi D, Misner B, Bagchi M, Kothari SC, Downs BW, Fafard RD, Preuss HG. Effects of orally administered undenatured type II collagen against arthritic inflammatory diseases: a mechanistic exploration. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 2002;22(3-4):101–10.
- Crowley DC, Lau FC, Sharma P, et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6(6):312-321. Published 2009 Oct 9. doi:10.7150/ijms.6.312
- Lugo JP, Saiyed ZM, Lau FC, et al. Undenatured type II collagen (UC-II®) for joint support: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):48. Published 2013 Oct 24. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-48
- Lugo JP, Saiyed ZM, Lane NE. Efficacy and tolerability of an undenatured type II collagen supplement in modulating knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J. 2016;15:14. Published 2016 Jan 29. doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0130-8
- Cao Y., Winzenberg T., Nguo K., Lin J., Jones G., Ding C. Association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Rheumatology. 2013;52:1323– doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ket132.
- Barker T., Henriksen V.T., Rogers V.E., Aguirre D., Trawick R.H., Lynn Rasmussen G., Momberger N.G. Vitamin D deficiency associates with gamma-tocopherol and quadriceps weakness but not inflammatory cytokines in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Redox Biol. 2014;2:466–474. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2014.01.024
- Veronese N, La Tegola L, Mattera M, Maggi S, Guglielmi G. Vitamin D Intake and Magnetic Resonance Parameters for Knee Osteoarthritis: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Calcif Tissue Int. 2018 Nov;103(5):522-528. doi: 10.1007/s00223-018-0448-7. Epub 2018 Jun 25. PMID: 29943188.
- Sanghi D., Mishra A., Sharma A.C., Singh A., Natu S.M., Agarwal S., Srivastava R.N. Does vitamin D improve osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2013;471:3556– doi: 10.1007/s11999-013-3201-6.