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Lower levels of testosterone and free testosterone were linked to increased body fat, body mass index (proportion of weight to height) and waist-to-hip ratio. Margaret Gates from the New England Research Institutes and colleagues compared hormone levels and body composition in 821 men ages 30 to 79. The researchers also found that higher levels of estrogen were linked to a higher percent of fat and trunk fat. Long-term studies of these men showed that baseline levels of the hormones did not influence body composition over time. This suggests that increased body fat reduces testosterone and increases estrogen rather than the other way around. (Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 98: 2442-2450)