My Cart

Close
 

NEW STUDY: MORE BAD NEWS ON INTERMITTENT FASTING WEIGHT LOSS/FAT LOSS

Jennifer AdvancedMolecularLabs

Posted on June 24 2021

By Steve Blechman

 

A new study reported that alternative-day fasting resulted in less fat loss than traditional energy- restricted diets.

The new study was published in the June 16th issue of the prestigious journal Science Translational Medicine. The study was a randomized, controlled trial involving 36 participants over a three-week period in lean, healthy adults.

The study participants lost less weight even when calorie intake was the same. According to Professor James Betts, Director of the Center for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism at the University of Bath in the United Kingdom and Senior Investigator, weight loss was not better than standard dieting and less effective for fat loss! The researchers acknowledged that intermittent fasting is no magic bullet when compared to more standard diets. “And it offered no additional short-term improvements in metabolic and cardiovascular health compared to daily energy restriction.”

According to the investigators: “The main practical message for individuals to consider if planning to use alternate-day fasting for the purpose of weight loss or health gain is thus to consciously insert opportunities for physical activity alongside the intermittent fasting regimen to maintain energy expenditure and maximize potential beneficial effects on body composition.” Therefore, a cardiovascular and resistance training program should be incorporated as part of an intermittent training regimen for best results.

A new study in the August 1st, 2021, issue of the journal Physiology and Behavior “indicated that intermittent fasting may produce improvements in body composition by decreasing body mass, body mass index, fat mass, and body percentage while preserving fat-free mass in adults performing resistance training." 

In a study on intermittent fasting published in the prestigious journal JAMA Internal Medicine on September 28, 2020, researchers questioned, “What is the effect of time-restricted eating on weight loss and metabolic health in patients with overweight and obesity?” The researchers’ findings acknowledge, “In this prospective randomized clinical trial that included 116 adults with overweight or obesity, time-restricted eating was associated with a modest decrease (1.17%) in weight that was not significantly different from the decrease in the control group (0.75%).” Meaning that during the three-month study on a daily 16-hour-fast (eating all their meals between noon and 8:00 pm), participants only lost 2 to 3 pounds, slightly better than their control group. The most concerning finding of the study was that 65 percent of weight loss from the fasting group was not fat, but from lean body mass and muscle. A healthy weight loss comes from a diet that enhances body fat loss, not muscle and lean body mass. Having more muscle increases metabolism and helps you burn more calories over a 24-hour period.

A new published study in the March 2, 2021 Journal Cell Reports concluded that every-other-day fasting makes it more difficult to lose belly fat, especially deep visceral abdominal fat! Increasing deep visceral abdominal fat is strongly linked to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

This new study was done in mice and not humans, because their physiology is similar but mice have a much faster metabolism. This is important because it allowed the researchers to use advanced instrumentation, examining tissues and measuring changes carefully and more precisely in the body much more easily.

The results of the study found that when mice fasted and went into starving or “preservation mode,” the mice stored more abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat rather than burning it for energy! This type of metabolic adaptation may make intermittent fasting a less desirable diet for weight loss and for optimal health! Even though the study was done using mice, the researchers feel similar effects are most likely to occur in humans and that intermittent fasting is ineffective for burning belly fat – and they acknowledge that the other diets may be found to be more effective and successful.

For the fourth consecutive year, U.S. News & World Report ranked the Mediterranean diet as the #1 Best Overall Diet. The article says, “Research suggests that the diet can ward off chronic diseases and improve longevity.” The Mediterranean Diet was also tied as #1 for the easiest diet to follow: the best diet for diabetes; best heart healthy diet, and best plant-based diet too. These results were based on a panel of 23 experts, and 41 diets based the scientific literature. The expert panel consisted of the country’s top nutrition experts and physicians specializing in weight loss, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. I have been an advocate of the Mediterranean diet for over 25 years.

The Mediterranean diet is the healthiest diet based on the latest scientific research. A healthy diet and lifestyle changes, such as following the anti-inflammatory Mediterranean diet along with exercise, has been shown to lower the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and high-risk ailments such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

A study, first published online February 13, 2019 in the Journal of the American College Nutrition reported that, “eating a Mediterranean diet can increase endurance, exercise performance in just 4 days! This short-term Mediterranean diet resulted in “better exercise performance, as compared to a typical western diet.” The 5-Kilomter runtime was 6% faster in the “Mediterranean diet trial than in the western diet trial.” These are very significant results but according to the researchers, “further studies are warranted to determine whether a long-term Mediterranean diet provides greater benefits and whether it might also be beneficial for an anaerobic exercise performance and muscle strength and power.” The performance benefits of the Mediterranean diet may be a result of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The diet also has a more alkaline pH and is rich in nitrates, which leads to enhanced exercise performance.

The Mediterranean diet is high in fish containing omega-3 fatty acids, in addition to antioxidant-rich vegetables, red wine and berries rich in polyphenols, beans, lentils, nuts, legumes and extra-virgin-olive oil that are rich in healthy monounsaturated polyunsaturated fats and low in saturated fats. A recent study by Harvard researchers and reported by the American Heart Association (March 5, 2020) and published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (March 2020) found that as little as half a tablespoon of olive oil a day was linked to significant decrease in cardiovascular disease. Research has shown that omega-3 fatty acids found in fatty fish such as salmon have potent anti-inflammatory properties and reduced inflammation and protect against heart disease.

A breakthrough, long-term diet study was published in the American Heart Association Journal Circulation on measuring body fat! This diet study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for the first time, measuring changes in body and organ fat during 18 months on a Mediterranean/low-carb diet, with and without moderate physical exercise. MRI is a diagnostic technique that produces computerized images of organs and internal body tissues using a magnetic field and radio waves. This is the best approach to date for measuring body fat, compared to weighing people as a result of diet and exercise. The scale, skinfold calipers or underwater weighing are not giving you the whole picture!

The research was conducted between Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and Harvard University. The research group was led by Drs. Iris Shai, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelaf and Dan Schwarzfuchs from Ben-Gurion University. Dr. Meir Stampfer was also a lead author for the study, and is from the prestigious Harvard University. Dr. Stampfer is a well-known authority on nutrition and obesity. The study analyzed the implementation of positive dietary changes and how this could help in reducing body fat, particularly visceral (abdominal) body fat.

The Mediterranean low-carb diet was significantly superior to low-fat diet in decreasing fat storage, including visceral (deep abdominal) liver and heart fat. High visceral fat has been shown to increase metabolic syndrome, inflammation, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Losing deep subcutaneous visceral fat, as well as haptic (liver) fat, was associated with improved insulin sensitivity and improved lipid profile.

The low-carb Mediterranean diet was more effective than a low-fat diet in eliminating fat storage. Previous studies have shown that a low-carb Mediterranean diet may be an effective alternative to low-fat diets. It has a more favorable effect on lipids (with low-carb diet) and glycemic control (with Mediterranean diet).

In a groundbreaking, two-year dietary intervention study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that the Mediterranean and low-carb diet was an effective alternative to weight loss. It appears to be just as safe, metabolically healthier and more effective compared to a low-fat diet. Consumption of monounsaturated fats (extra-virgin olive oil and nuts) is thought to improve insulin sensitivity, which may explain the favorable effect on blood glucose and insulin levels. Research has shown that nut consumption can enhance weight loss and weight gain (N Engl J Med, 2008).

People who strictly follow the Mediterranean diet tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI), which is a measure of the proportion of weight to height and waist circumference – according to a large population study led by Simona Bertoli from the Nutritional Research Center in Milan, Italy. The Mediterranean diet is high in fish, seafood, antioxidant-rich vegetables, red wine and berries rich in polyphenols, beans, lentils, nuts, legumes and extra-virgin-olive oil (EVOO) that are rich in healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and low in saturated fats. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a polyphenol called oleuropein and can increase brown fat thermogenesis.

Brown fat is a special kind of fat cell that generates heat and helps regulate bodyweight and energy expenditure. The body has two forms of fat – white fat and brown fat. Brown fat burns calories. The more brown fat you have, the more calories you burn. The capability of harnessing one’s one brown fat for fat burning is revolutionary! The ability to get lean by producing extra brown fat and enhancing and activating existing brown fat represents a promising way to burn fat. Several landmark discoveries and approaches to this are being explored at major research centers and universities worldwide, with great excitement. Brown fat research is a hot topic today!

The Thermo Heat® Weight Loss Revolution by Michael Rudolph, Ph.D. provides a calorie-controlled low-carb Mediterranean diet, 30-day meal plan and exercise program. It says that you should limit yourself to 100 grams of carbohydrates per day, or less. Processed food and sugar is off the table! The Thermo Heat® Weight Loss Revolution stresses foods high in monounsaturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. It also recommends thermogenic brown fat-activating herbs and spices instead of salt to flavor food such as garlic, onion, mustard and chili pepper (capsaicin) to name a few. The American Heart Association released a press release on November 9, 2020, which said: “Individuals who consume chili pepper may live longer and may have a significantly reduced risk of dying from cardiovascular disease or cancer, according to preliminary research presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2020. The meeting was a premier global exchange of the latest scientific advancements, research and evidence-based clinical practice updates in cardiovascular science for health care worldwide.” The meeting was held virtually on November 13, 2020. 

Monounsaturated fats are more thermogenic than saturated fats found in high-fat dairy and red meat. Because of ease of compliance, The ThermoHeat® Weight Loss Revolution Mediterranean Diet makes it easy to follow even when dining out. One or two glasses of polyphenol-rich red wine (not white wine, or any other alcoholic beverages) per day can have positive health benefits on the Mediterranean diet. Studies show that olive oil and certain spices can enhance brown fat and increase thermogenesis. A number of studies have shown that healthy fats from nuts, olive oil and fish, found predominantly in Italian, Greek, and Turkish cuisine, have health benefits in the prevention of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Fish oil and omega-3 fats can decrease bodyweight gain and fat accumulation by increasing thermogenesis and energy expenditure. (Clinical Nutrition, 2009; Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, 2008; International Journal of Obesity, 2002; Nutrition Journal, 2015).

For more authoritative information, see The Thermo Heat® Weight Loss Revolution, by Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D., including the foreword by Daniel L. Friedman, MD and Eugene B. Friedman, MD. You can click the link to order on Amazon here. The Thermo Heat®Weight Loss Revolution is a groundbreaking scientific plan based on research involving brown fat (BAT) The Thermo Heat® Weight Loss Revolution offers its readers a brown fat, thermogenic and brown-fat-activating-diet, nutrition, supplement(s) and exercise program. You can also get a free PDF version here

 

© Published by Advanced Research Media, Inc., 2021

© Reprinted with permission from Advanced Research Media, Inc.

 

References:

 

  1. Templeman I, Smith HA, Chowdhury E, Chen YC, Carroll H, Johnson-Bonson D, Hengist A, Smith R, Creighton J, Clayton D, Varley I, Karagounis LG, Wilhelmsen A, Tsintzas K, Reeves S, Walhin JP, Gonzalez JT, Thompson D, Betts JA. A randomized controlled trial to isolate the effects of fasting and energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic health in lean adults. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jun 16;13(598):eabd8034. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd8034. PMID: 34135111.

 

  1. Harney DJ, Cielesh M, Chu R, Cooke KC, James DE, Stöckli J, Larance M. Proteomics analysis of adipose depots after intermittent fasting reveals visceral fat preservation mechanisms. Cell Rep. 2021 Mar 2;34(9):108804. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108804. PMID: 33657384.

 

  1. Lowe DA, Wu N, Rohdin-Bibby L, Moore AH, Kelly N, Liu YE, Philip E, Vittinghoff E, Heymsfield SB, Olgin JE, Shepherd JA, Weiss EJ. Effects of Time-Restricted Eating on Weight Loss and Other Metabolic Parameters in Women and Men With Overweight and Obesity: The TREAT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Nov 1;180(11):1491-1499. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4153. Erratum in: JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Nov 1;180(11):1555. PMID: 32986097; PMCID: PMC7522780.

 

  1. Duarte L, Gasaly N, Poblete-Aro C, Uribe D, Echeverria F, Gotteland M, Garcia-Diaz DF. Polyphenols and their anti-obesity role mediated by the gut microbiota: a comprehensive review. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Jun;22(2):367-388. doi: 10.1007/s11154-020-09622-0. Epub 2021 Jan 2. PMID: 33387285.

 

  1. Plant-based and/or fish diets may help lessen severity of COVID-19 infection by British Medical Journal. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06-plant-based-andor-fish-diets-lessen.html

 

  1. COVID-19: New study highlights potential role of diet. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/covid-19-new-study-highlights-potential-role-of-diet

 

  1. Tresserra-Rimbau A, Medina-Remón A, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Bulló M, Salas-Salvadó J, Corella D, Fitó M, Gea A, Gómez-Gracia E, Lapetra J, Arós F, Fiol M, Ros E, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Muñoz MA, Estruch R; PREDIMED Study Investigators. Moderate red wine consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the PREDIMED population. Br J Nutr. 2015 Apr;113 Suppl 2:S121-30. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003262. PMID: 26148915.

 

  1. Ashtary-Larky D, Bagheri R, Tinsley GM, Asbaghi O, Paoli A, Moro T. Effects of intermittent fasting combined with resistance training on body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiol Behav. 2021 Aug 1;237:113453. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113453. Epub 2021 May 11. PMID: 33984329.

 

  1. de Oliveira Maranhão Pureza IR, da Silva Junior AE, Silva Praxedes DR, Lessa Vasconcelos LG, de Lima Macena M, Vieira de Melo IS, de Menezes Toledo Florêncio TM, Bueno NB. Effects of time-restricted feeding on body weight, body composition and vital signs in low-income women with obesity: A 12-month randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2021 Mar;40(3):759-766. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.06.036. Epub 2020 Jul 14. PMID: 32713721.

 

  1. Halpern B, Mendes TB. Intermittent fasting for obesity and related disorders: unveiling myths, facts, and presumptions. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 14:2359-3997000000322. doi: 10.20945/2359-3997000000322. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33444495.

 

  1. U.S. News Reveals Best Diet Rankings for 2021. January 4, 2021. US News & World Report. https://www.usnews.com/info/blogs/press-room/articles/2021-01-04/us-news-reveals-best-diet-rankings-for-2021

 

  1. Olive oil may lower heart disease risk. American Heart Association News. March 5, 2020. https://www.heart.org/en/news/2020/03/05/olive-oil-may-lower-heart-disease-risk

 

  1. Olive Oil Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk in U.S. Adults. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Marta Guasch-Ferré, Gang Liu, Yanping Li, Laura Sampson, JoAnn E. Manson, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel A. Martínez-González, Meir J. Stampfer, Walter C. Willett, Qi Sun, Frank B. Hu. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. April 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.036

 

  1. Razquin C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. A Traditional Mediterranean Diet Effectively Reduces Inflammation and Improves Cardiovascular Health. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1842. Published 2019 Aug 9. doi:10.3390/nu11081842

 

  1. Fish Consumption in Healthy Adults Is Associated with Decreased Circulating Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation during a 6-Year Follow-Up. Bas C. T. van Bussel, Ronald M. A. Henry, Casper G. Schalkwijk, Isabel Ferreira, Edith J. M. Feskens, Martinette T. Streppel, Yvo M. Smulders, Jos W. R. Twisk, Coen D. A. Stehouwer. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 141, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 1719-1725, https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.111.139733

 

  1. Ratih Wirapuspita Wisnuwardani, Stefaan De Henauw, Marika Ferrari, Maria Forsner, Frédéric Gottrand, Inge Huybrechts, Antonios G Kafatos, Mathilde Kersting, Viktoria Knaze, Yannis Manios, Ascensión Marcos, Dénes Molnár, Joseph A Rothwell, Azahara Iris Rupérez, Augustin Scalbert, Kurt Widhalm, Luis A Moreno, Nathalie Michels, Total Polyphenol Intake Is Inversely Associated with a Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Biomarker Ratio in European Adolescents of the HELENA Study, The Journal of Nutrition, nxaa064, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa064

 

  1. Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss. Nutrition Journal, 2008, Volume 7, Number 1, Page 1. Joaquín Pérez-Guisado, Andrés Muñoz-Serrano, Ángeles Alonso-Moraga

 

  1. Long-term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic Mediterranean diet and Mediterranean diet maintenance protocol. Paoli, A., Bianco, A., Grimaldi, K. A., Lodi, A., & Bosco, G. (2013). Nutrients, 5 (12), 5205-17. doi:10.3390/nu5125205

 

  1. Effect of ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees. Paoli, A., Cenci, L., & Grimaldi, K. A. (2011). Nutrition journal, 10, 112. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-112

 

  1. Mediterranean Diet Reduces Risk of Incident Stroke in a Population With Varying Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles. Paterson, K. E., Myint, P. K., Jennings, A., Bain, L., Lentjes, M., Khaw, K. T., & Welch, A. A. (Oct 2018). Stroke, 49 (10), 2415-2420. Advance online publication. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.020258

 

  1. Ahmad S, Moorthy MV, Demler OV, et al. Assessment of Risk Factors and Biomarkers Associated With Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Women Consuming a Mediterranean Diet. JAMA Netw Open. Dec. 7, 2018;1(8):e185708. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5708

 

  1. Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Amalia De Curtis, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello. Interaction between Mediterranean diet and statins on mortality risk in patients with cardiovascular disease: Findings from the Moli-sani Study. International Journal of Cardiology, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.11.117

 

  1. Effect of Distinct Lifestyle Interventions on Mobilization of Fat Storage Pools: The CENTRAL MRI Randomized Controlled Trial. Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J. Stampfer and Iris Shai. Circulation 2017;CIRCULATION AHA.117.030501, 2017.

 

  1. Zong, G., Li, Y., Wanders, A.J., Alssema, M., Zock, P.L., Willett, W.C., Hu, F.B., Sun, Q. Intake of individual saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: two prospective longitudinal cohort studies BMJ. 2016;355:i5796.

 

  1. Wiley. Fish consumption may prolong life. ScienceDaily, 18 July 2018. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180718082138.htm

 

  1. Zhang, P. Zhuang, W. He, J. N. Chen, W. Q. Wang, N. D. Freedman, C. C. Abnet, J. B. Wang, J. J. Jiao. Association of fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids intakes with total and cause-specific mortality: prospective analysis of 421 309 individuals. Journal of Internal Medicine, 2018; DOI: 10.1111/joim.12786

 

  1. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association Frank M. Sacks, MD, FAHA, Chair, Alice H. Lichtenstein, DSc, FAHA, Jason H.Y. Wu, PhD, MSc, Lawrence J. Appel, MD, MPH, FAHA, Mark A. Creager, MD, FAHA, Penny M. Kris-Etherton, PhD, RD, FAHA, Michael Miller, MD, FAHA, Eric B. Rimm, ScD, FAHA, Lawrence L. Rudel, PhD, FAHA, Jennifer G. Robinson, MD, MPH, FAHA, Vice Chair, Neil J. Stone, MD, FAHA, and Linda V. Van Horn, PhD, RD, FAHA, Vice Chair On behalf of the American Heart Association.

 

  1. Mediterranean Diet Reduces Risk of Incident Stroke in a Population With Varying Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles. Paterson, K. E., Myint, P.K., Jennings, A., Bain, L., Lentjes, M., Khaw, K.T., & Welch, A.A. (Oct 2018). Stroke, 49 (10), 2415-2420. Advance online publication. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.020258

 

  1. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: The Attica study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.03.039.

 

  1. Teresa T Fung, Marjorie L McCullough, PK Newby, JoAnn E Manson, James B Meigs, Nader Rifai, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 82, Issue 1, July 2005, Pages 163-173, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.1.163

 

  1. Estruch R, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2018 Aug 21;169(4):270-271]. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(1):1-11. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-145-1-200607040-00004

 

  1. Schwingshackl L, Christoph M, Hoffmann G. Effects of Olive Oil on Markers of Inflammation and Endothelial Function-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2015;7(9):7651-7675. Published 2015 Sep 11. doi:10.3390/nu7095356

 

  1. Medina-Remón A, Casas R, Tressserra-Rimbau A, et al. Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: a substudy of the PREDIMED trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;83(1):114-128. doi:10.1111/bcp.12986

 

  1. Sureda A, Bibiloni MDM, Julibert A, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers. Nutrients. 2018;10(1):62. Published 2018 Jan 10. doi:10.3390/nu10010062

 

  1. Ruiz-Canela M, Estruch R, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA. Association of Mediterranean diet with peripheral artery disease: the PREDIMED randomized trial [published correction appears in JAMA. 2018 Dec 4;320(21):2272]. JAMA. 2014;311(4):415-417. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280618

 

  1. Martínez-González MA, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R, et al. Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: Insights From the PREDIMED Study. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;58(1):50-60. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2015.04.003

 

  1. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. Ramón Estruch, Emilio Ros, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, et al. The New England Journal of Medicine. Massachusetts Medical Society. Apr 4, 2013 https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1200303

 

  1. Anti-inflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease. Paul M Ridker, Brendan M. Everett, Tom Thuren. The New England Journal of Medicine, Sep 21, 2017 https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1707914

 

  1. Baker ME, DeCesare KN, Johnson A, Kress KS, Inman CL, Weiss EP. Short-Term Mediterranean Diet Improves Endurance Exercise Performance: A Randomized-Sequence Crossover Trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2019 Sep-Oct;38(7):597-605. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2019.1568322. Epub 2019 Feb 13. PMID: 30758261.

 

  1. David S Ludwig, Stephanie L Dickinson, Beate Henschel, Cara B Ebbeling, David B Allison, Do Lower-Carbohydrate Diets Increase Total Energy Expenditure? An Updated and Reanalyzed Meta-Analysis of 29 Controlled-Feeding Studies, The Journal of Nutrition, nxaa350, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa350

 

  1. Oleuropein, a Phenolic Compound in Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Increases Uncoupling Protein 1 Content in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Noradrenaline and Adrenaline Secretions in Rats, Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, Released November 11, 2008 Yuriko Oi-Kano, Teruo Kawada, Tatsuo Watanabe, Fumihiro Koyama, Kenichi Watanabe, Reijirou Senbongi, Kazuo Iwai

 

  1. Oleuropein aglycone enhances UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue in high-fat diet induced by obese rats by activating beta-adrenergic signaling. Yuriko Oi-Kano, Teruo Kawada, Tatsuo Watanabe, Fumihiro Koyama, Kenichi Watanabe, Reijirou Senbongi, Kazuo Iwai, J Nutrit Biochemistry, 2/2017, 209-218

 

  1. The influence of the type of dietary fat on postprandial fat oxidation rates: monounsaturated (olive oil) vs saturated fat (cream). LS Piers, KZ Walker, RM Stoney, MJ Soares and K O’Dea. International Journal of Obesity (2002) 26, 814-821 (2002)

 

  1. The effect of dietary oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids on fat oxidation and energy expenditure in healthy men. Jones, Peter J.H. et al. Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, Volume 57, Issue 9, 1198-1203

 

  1. Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study. European Journal of Nutrition, 2017, Page 1 Heinz Freisling, Hwayoung Noh, Nadia Slimani