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Vitamin D supplements combined with 12 weeks of weight training improved body composition and increased power output in overweight young adults— according to a study led by Andres Carrillo from Purdue University. Researchers supplemented 4,000 international units of vitamin D per day. They found improvements in peak power output and waist-to-hip ratio, but no effects on calorie intake, blood sugar regulation, lean mass, fat mass or muscle strength. Vitamin D is consumed in the diet and produced naturally in a reaction involving sunlight. Up to 75 percent of people in the United States are vitamin D deficient, which increases the risk of colds and flu, heart disease, diabetes, cancer and low bone density. Vitamin D levels are dropping because people have reduced sun exposure to prevent skin cancer. (Clinical Nutrition, 32: 375-381)