Multivitamins | Adverse Health Effects From Iron, Copper, Manganese and Calcium
By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.
Human health is enhanced by a diet that includes adequate intake of essential vitamins and minerals. These essential vitamins and minerals function as micronutrients that sustain a wide array of biochemical and physiological processes in the body, making them necessary for normal bodily function and good health.
Because the body cannot produce these indispensable vitamins and minerals, they must be obtained from the diet. Unfortunately, the modern diet is typically dense in calories but nutrient deficient, meaning most people today do not consume even the minimal daily requirement for many of these essential vitamins and minerals, causing a nutritional deficiency that increases the risk for several diseases.1
The preponderance of certain life-threatening diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer has increased significantly within the past century.2 While many rationalize the current outbreak of chronic disease by declaring that longer life spans and better medical diagnostics are the exclusive reasons for the apparent increase in certain chronic disease, there is emerging evidence that suggests the increased prevalence of many of these chronic diseases is associated with a diet lacking the appropriate antioxidants that protect the body against chemically reactive species, known as free radicals, that damage vital biomolecules, causing them to malfunction, thus promoting the disease state. Furthermore, and perhaps most importantly, the modern diet is loaded with chemicals that trigger the production of free radicals, causing even more oxidative damage in the body. The accumulation of oxidative damage triggers an immune response causing inflammation. In addition, the high-caloric value of the contemporary diet increases the storage of fat within the fat cell. When the fat cell gets larger, it becomes more biochemically active, cranking out pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, which also activates the immune system, further increasing the overall inflammatory response in the body.3
Altogether, the collective inflammatory response from oxidative damage and pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted from fat cells leads to an extensive period of inflammation or chronic inflammation. In contrast to acute inflammation, which is a normal process that protects and heals the body following physical injury or infection, chronic inflammation is abnormal and does not benefit the body. In fact, chronic inflammation is involved in a number of disease states. For instance, chronic inflammation in fat cells is closely related to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.4 Similarly, activated immune cells and chronic inflammation can damage the coronary arteries, promoting cardiovascular disease5 or stimulate the initiation of cancerous tumors.6
The multivitamin and mineral supplement was intended to fill the significant nutritional void in today’s diet, promoting better health. However, because of the severity of nutritional issues with the modern diet, most multivitamins and mineral products fall severely short of this goal. Moreover, recent scientific evidence indicates that many multivitamin and mineral products on the market today may actually impede overall health by supplying an excessive amount of certain chemicals that increase oxidative stress and chronic inflammation contributing to the onset of the aforementioned chronic diseases.
In addition to their inability to improve health, multivitamin and mineral products available today are typically unable to function as a performance enhancer. That is, until now, as the most revolutionary supplement company on the planet, Advanced Molecular Labs, has meticulously formulated a revolutionary new product, Thermo Heat Multi, that extinguishes destructive oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, promoting superior health while simultaneously enhancing exercise performance like no other multivitamin and mineral product ever has before.
Improves Overall Metabolic Health
Thermo Heat Multi contains a blend of vitamins that have demonstrably been shown to enhance health and wellness. Included in this blend is the fat-soluble vitamin A that helps maintain healthy skin, teeth and soft tissue while also being important for efficient immune system function and good vision.7 Vitamin A also has potent anti-inflammatory properties, suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory agents such as IL-6 and increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines.8 Thermo Heat Multi has antioxidant support in vitamin C and vitamin E, which chemically neutralize free radicals and other oxidizing agents.9,10
Boosts Thyroid Function, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Reduces Body Fat
Thermo Heat Multi only contains essential minerals that improve health by alleviating oxidative stress while burning body fat, which removes chronic inflammation, leading to a more vigorous metabolism and superior overall health. One way Thermo Heat Multi accomplishes this effect is by enhancing thyroid gland function. The thyroid gland’s primary purpose is to control metabolic rate by way of several hormones, including the most important triiodothyronine or T3.
A sluggish thyroid that does not produce enough T3 decreases metabolic rate, leading to fatigue and weight gain. Thermo Heat Multi contains two important minerals, selenium and iodine, which improve thyroid function, increasing energy levels and metabolic rate. Selenium improves thyroid activity by functioning as a cofactor for the enzyme deiodinase, which catalyzes the production of T3, making selenium absolutely required for T3 production and optimal thyroid performance.11 In addition, greater T3 levels from selenium intake also kindle thermogenesis for enhanced elimination of body fat.12 Selenium also functions as a cofactor for several proteins that protect against oxidative damage, giving selenium antioxidant properties that reduce the likelihood for certain diseases like cancer. In fact, higher selenium levels in the body have been shown to lower the risk for colorectal cancer.13
Thermo Heat Multi further supports normal thyroid function by providing the mineral iodine, which is also required by the thyroid for T3 production as iodine deficiency has been shown to reduce thyroid function and decrease metabolic rate.14 What's more, a combined deficiency in selenium and iodine appears to be even more detrimental to thyroid function, as a study by Beckett et al.15 showed that rats deficient in selenium and iodine had much lower T3 levels than in rats deficient in iodine alone, further highlighting the importance of these two minerals for optimal metabolic function and wellness.
Thermo Heat Multi Contains the Optimal Dosage of Vitamin D3 for Enhanced Muscle Growth and Fat Loss
While most multivitamin and mineral combinations do not enhance performance in the gym or improve the physique, Thermo Heat Multi contains several unique compounds that accomplish both with the most prominent being vitamin D, or more precisely vitamin D3, which is the more active form of vitamin D in the body.16
Vitamin D is unique because it promotes overall health like other vitamins while also improving muscle growth and exercise performance. Some of the health benefits associated with vitamin D include greater absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorous for improved bone health. In addition, low levels of vitamin D correlate with several diseases such as cancer,17 cardiovascular disease18 and obesity,19,20 indicating the requirement of vitamin D intake to prevent these disorders.
Some of the muscle-building properties associated with vitamin D evidently come from its capacity to directly bind and activate the androgen receptor in a similar fashion to testosterone, which consequently turns on several anabolic genes that drive muscle growth. Vitamin D further improves the physique by triggering fatty acid oxidation,21 which causes greater fat loss.19
Thermo Heat Multi contains 4,000 IU of vitamin D (from vitamin D3), the amount reported in the research to be beneficial for optimal health, enhanced muscle growth, fat loss, bone health and disease prevention.
A Novel Thermogenic Blend That Supports a Leaner Body and More Robust Metabolism
Body fat accumulates when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. The ideal way to increase energy expenditure and fat loss is exercise. However, a multivitamin and mineral supplement that also increases energy expenditure should foster even greater fat loss, especially when added to a good exercise routine. Thermo Heat Multi, with its unique blend of compounds that increase energy expenditure by a process known as thermogenesis, is that supplement!
Thermogenesis occurs when the production of cellular energy (in the form of ATP) is uncoupled with fat burning. As a result, instead of the energy from fat being used to synthesize ATP, it is instead converted into heat, which effectively increases energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been shown to be the most thermogenic tissue in the body because it is loaded with the protein UCP-1 that directly uncouples fat oxidation with ATP production driving thermogenesis. BAT-thermogenesis can be triggered by compounds that bind to a class of receptors, known as TRPV receptors, within the oral cavity or gastrointestinal tract. The binding of these compounds to the TRPV receptor stimulates the release of noradrenaline, which activates the thermogenic process in BAT.
Thermo Heat Multi contains compounds, known as capsaicinoids, which bind the TRPV receptor and potently induce thermogenesis. In fact, studies have shown that capsaicinoids not only trigger BAT-driven thermogenesis and fat loss but also increase the levels of BAT facilitating greater levels of thermogenic energy expenditure and fat loss.22, 23 Capsaicinoids have also been shown to reduce food intake,24, 25 giving them the capability to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation while reducing energy intake, providing a surefire way to lose body fat and keep it off.
Exclusive Spice Blend Also Suppresses Appetite and Thermogenically Incinerates Fat
Thermo Heat Multi also contains a unique blend of spices that burn fat and suppress appetite including bioperine, cinnamaldehyde and gingerol. Bioperine and gingerol have been reported to activate the TRPV1 receptor while cinnamaldehyde activates another member within the TRPV1-family of receptors, the TRPA1 receptor. Activation of this family of receptors by these spices triggers thermogenic-energy expenditure in a similar fashion to capsaicinoids,26,27 which ultimately depletes body fat. All three compounds have also been shown to decrease appetite, giving them even greater capacity to bolster fat loss by increasing energy expenditure while also decreasing energy intake.28,29,30 An additional advantage of bioperine intake is its remarkable capacity to enhance the bioavailability, and thus activity, of many different compounds. Consequently, inclusion of bioperine in Thermo Heat Multi plausibly enhances the potency of several compounds in Thermo Heat Multi, making this already potent supplement even more powerful.
Thermo Heat Multi Polyphenol’s Further Support Thermogenically-driven Fat Loss
A wide variety of polyphenolic compounds in Thermo Heat Multi support weight loss and better health by stimulating thermogenic and non-thermogenic fatty acid oxidation while also suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, such as grape seed and red wine polyphenols. The remarkable polyphenol resveratrol has received widespread attention as a possible anti-aging compound. Many of these anti-aging effects conceivably come from the potent antioxidant31 and anti-inflammatory properties32 of resveratrol. Resveratrol also triggers fat loss by directly activating two key energy-sensing enzymes SIRT1 and AMPK that turn on both thermogenic33 and non-thermogenic fatty acid oxidation,34 bringing about fat loss.
Thermo Heat Multi has several other polyphenols that independently contribute to its fat-reducing capacity. The polyphenolic oleuropein is one of these polyphenols that directly triggers the secretion of noradrenaline which, as previously mentioned, increases BAT-driven thermogenesis.35 Another polyphenolic with potent thermogenic properties is the compound kaempferol. In contrast to the previously mentioned compounds, kaempferol uniquely activates thermogenesis in muscle cells without triggering noradrenaline release or TRPV receptor activation. Instead, kaempferol stimulates thermogenesis by triggering thyroid hormone production,36 which activates a different thermogenic-signaling pathway specifically in muscle.
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound derived from the turmeric plant.
It is commonly used in many parts of the world as a spice and medical agent to treat a wide variety of ailments.37 Research has identified curcumin as the active compound responsible for most of the health benefits associated with turmeric consumption,38 which include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and antioxidant effects.39,40 Interestingly, curcumin also activates thermogenesis by functioning as an energy-uncoupler itself, which alleviates the requirement for UCP-1. In addition to the many targets that curcumin regulates to improve overall health and fat loss, curcumin also increases production of the muscle-building hormone testosterone, resulting in a more anabolic environment that boosts the hypertrophic response in muscle tissue.
The abundance of polyphenolic compounds in Thermo Heat Multi provides considerable antioxidant protection while concurrently assisting improved fat loss, which together reduces local and systemic inflammation for improved metabolic function and well-being.
More BAT for Greater Fat Loss
In addition to boosting thermogenic-activity in BAT, increasing the amount of BAT in the body would potently increase the overall thermogenic response for a more robust capacity to shed body fat. A compound naturally found in many fruits and herbs and also found in Thermo Heat Multi, known as ursolic acid,41 has been shown to increase both BAT quantity and thermogenic-activity.42
Berberine Converts Adipose Tissue from Fat Depot into a Fat Incinerator
There are two distinct types of BAT, one being the classical BAT that derives from a muscle-like cell lineage that is typically found in rather small amounts throughout the neck and scapular regions of the body. In addition, brown fat-like cells can also emerge from the better known, and much more abundant, white adipose tissue after exposure to various stimuli such as cold temperatures in a process called “browning.” These newly formed brown fat-like cells can also thermogenically burn fat. Because of their greater abundance, they represent a better way to increase the overall amount of thermogenic-induced fat loss.
Recent research has discovered that the compound berberine causes the “browning” of white adipose tissue by inducing the expression of many genes associated with thermogenic function in BAT. Interestingly, this study also demonstrated that berberine-induced browning of white adipose tissue is triggered by the activation of AMPK in fat cells without activating AMPK in the hypothalamus, which would trigger hunger and likely negate any additional calories burned via thermogenesis in BAT.43 Berberine has also been shown to increase energy expenditure, limit weight gain and enhance brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in obese mice.44
Too Much Iron, Copper and Manganese Boosts Oxidative Damage, Inflammation and Chronic Disease
Iron is an essential trace element typically found in enzymes and proteins that participate in numerous biological processes such as enzymatic reactions and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Iron deficiency is one of the most common deficiencies in the USA, according to the CDC, creating a large demand for iron-containing supplements. However, the use of iron-containing supplements doesn’t seem to be such a good idea as the daily requirement for iron ranges from 8 milligrams for men to 18 milligrams for premenopausal women, which is normally the amount of iron found in most multivitamin and mineral products. So, you may be asking, why shouldn’t you take these iron-containing supplements, especially if they’re providing the daily requirement? Because you’re also getting generous amounts of iron from your diet, as many common foods are heavily fortified with iron such as cereals, bread and pasta. So supplementing a diet with iron-fortified foods will conceivably lead to the consumption of too much iron, which may not sound so terrifying. That is, until you realize that several recent studies have shown that too much iron in the diet can increase oxidative stress and boost inflammation,45 which, as previously mentioned, is a hallmark for many life-threatening diseases.
Iron is found in the body in two forms: one form is bound to the prosthetic heme group, while the other is in a free form unbound to heme. The free form of iron can be harmful because it reacts with other compounds in the body, producing free radicals causing irreparable oxidative damage to key components of the cell, including proteins, lipids and DNA. Consequently, when inside the cell, the free form of iron is stored inside a protein called ferritin, which prevents the unwanted release of iron to avoid oxidative damage. In fact, studies have shown that increased dietary iron intake increases cellular levels of ferritin to provide greater storage capacity for the additionally ingested iron. Yet, unexpectedly, greater ferritin levels induced by iron intake actually triggers inflammation45 increasing the risk for obesity46 and diabetes.45,47 This is likely because higher ferritin levels function as a signal to the body that a lot of iron is around. The body responds to this signal by activating the immune system, which can prevent the release of iron from the primary iron-storage site, the liver. So, essentially, the body is doing its best to lower serum iron levels despite the fact that it could cause chronic inflammation and disease. In addition, this unexpected inflammation from too much iron intake may also be due to iron intake exceeding the storage capacity of ferritin, resulting in the release of free iron into the cell, causing additional oxidative damage and inflammation.
Comparable to iron, the element copper also generates oxidative damage, particularly in neurons, making too much copper intake in the diet unhealthy, as evidence shows that ingestion of copper from supplement pills, along with a high fat diet, contributes to the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.48 More specifically, it was shown that serum copper levels were elevated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and this higher copper level correlated with loss of cognition. In addition, copper accumulation in certain tissues has also been associated with certain pathologies including cancer as copper can contribute to the growth of certain cancers while improving cancer metastasis in other forms.49,50
Excessive consumption of the element manganese has also been identified as a health risk, as accumulation of manganese in the central nervous system promotes neurotoxicity, resulting in the neurological brain disorder manganism. In addition, elevated serum levels of manganese have been found in different neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease51,52,53, where manganese has been shown to promote the production of the abnormal protein aggregates called Lewy bodies that apparently contribute to Parkinson’s disease.
Manganese’s deleterious influence on health is likely due, in part, from oxidative damage within the body, as manganese can generate free radicals in a similar fashion to iron and copper. Manganese also tends to accumulate in specific cells in the brain called the astrocytes, causing them to malfunction. Since the astrocyte normally provides essential nutrients to neurons, malfunction of the astrocyte prevents the required nutrition for the neuron, thus depleting neuronal function and promoting neurodegeneration.54 Because of the inherent medical risks associated with superfluous iron, copper and manganese intake, Thermo Heat Multi does not contain any form of these elements.
Too Much Calcium Increases Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Calcium intake has been promoted for quite some time because of its apparent ability to improve bone health. Calcium is also required for many other essential bodily functions, including nerve function, muscular contraction and the regulation of certain hormones.50,55 As a result, most multivitamins contain a considerable amount of the daily recommended allowance for calcium.
However, a few recent studies indicate that calcium supplementation may not be as beneficial to bone health as once thought and may actually be detrimental to cardiovascular health. The first report states that while calcium may slow bone loss to some degree, there is no significant reduction in fracture prevention.51,56 In a second report by the National Institutes of Health, it was shown that calcium supplements, not dietary calcium, increased the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.52,57 Because of the apparent adverse effects associated with calcium supplementation along with an inability to enhance bone health, Thermo Heat Multi does not contain any form of calcium.
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