THE AMAZING HEALTH FAT-BURNING POWERS OF THERMO HEAT COFFEE
Posted on September 24 2020
By Steve Blechman
A recent review article was published July 23, 2020 in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine entitled: “Coffee, Caffeine, and Health.” The review article was written by researchers from the National University of Singapore and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public health at Harvard Medical School.
This authoritative review article acknowledges that, “concerns have long existed that coffee and caffeine may increase the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but more recently, evidence of health benefits has also emerged. A key issue in research on caffeine and coffee is that coffee contains hundreds of other biologically active phytochemicals, including polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid and lignans, the alkaloid trigonelline, melanoidins formed during roasting and modest amounts of magnesium, potassium and vitamin B-3 (niacin). These coffee compounds may reduce oxidative stress, improve gut microbiome and modulate glucose and fat metabolism.”
The article goes on to say, that unlike pure caffeine, caffeine from coffee does not seem to increase blood pressure, even among persons with hypertension. Polyphenols in coffee such as chlorogenic acid seem to counter the blood pressure-raising effects of pure caffeine. Filtered coffee does not raise cholesterol levels. Unfiltered coffee such as French press espresso have been shown to raise LDL (bad cholesterol). So, it is best to limit your intake of unfiltered coffee if you are trying to control your cholesterol levels or have a family history of cardiovascular disease.
Research has shown that up to 6 cups of filtered caffeinated coffee per day does not have a negative cardiovascular effect in hypertension, cardiovascular disease or diabetes. “In fact, coffee consumption was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease with the lowest risk for 3-5 cups per day.”
Research studies have shown that caffeine can enhance weight loss by reducing appetite, boosting metabolic rate and enhancing thermogenesis and energy expenditure. The authors acknowledge that, “repeated caffeine intake during the day (6 doses of 100mg of caffeine) lead to a 5% increase in 24-hour-energy expenditure.”
Unlike pure caffeine, caffeine in coffee does not reduce insulin sensitivity. “Consumption of caffeinated coffee (4-5 cups per day) for up to 6 months does not affect insulin resistance,” the review continued. In fact, regular daily coffee consumption has been strongly associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
The review continues to say that coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of some cancers such as melanoma and other skin cancers, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and endometrial cancer and liver cancer. Another most recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA Oncology) September 17, 2020, reported that, “increased coffee consumption is associated with improved survival in patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancers, and that, “increased coffee intake to be associated with lower risk of disease progression.”
Coffee intake is also associated with healthy liver function, preventing liver damage, and fatty liver disease. The polyphenols in coffee are a potent antioxidant and prevent oxidative stress: ROS and liver damage. Daily coffee intake is also associated to lower gallstone formation and reduced risk of kidney stones.
Studies have shown that “consumption of 2-5 cups of coffee per day has been associated with reduced mortality, and death worldwide.” In conclusion, the Singapore and Harvard Scientific Review says, “a large body of evidence suggests that consumption of caffeinated coffee, the main source of caffeine intake in adults in the United States does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancers. In fact, consumption of 3 to 5 standard cups of coffee daily has been consistently associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases.”
A study published May 3, 2020 in the Journal of Nutrition reported that “women who drank two or 3 cups of coffee a day found to have lower total body and abdominal fat than those who drink less.” (ScienceDaily, May 13, 2020). Researchers found that women aged 20 through 44 who drank 2 to 3 cups of coffee per day have the lowest level of adiposity, 3.4% lower than people who did not consume coffee. Among women aged 45 to 69, those who drank 4 or more cups had an adiposity percentage of 4.1% lower.
The researchers said, “It could be that coffee, or effective ingredients, could be integrated into a healthy diet strategy to reduce the burden of chronic conditions related to the obesity epidemic.”
On Monday, June 24, 2019 in the prestigious journal Nature Scientific Reports, a breakthrough weight loss/fat loss study was published entitled: “Coffee Exposure Induces Browning Features in Adipose Tissue In Vitro and In Vivo.” The researchers said, “It is the first study in humans to show that something like a cup of coffee can have a direct effect on brown fat functions.” British researchers from the University of Nottingham found that one cup of coffee containing only 65mg of caffeine can activate brown fat. Brown fat is an organ that is extremely metabolically active. It’s like a generator that produces heat, which helps burn more calories. We only have 50 to 100 grams of brown fat, mainly located behind the neck and scapula, as I mentioned earlier. Brown fat produces 300 times more heat than our muscles or any organ in the body! If we can increase the amount of brown fat or activate more brown fat cells, you will burn more calories over a 24-hour period.
As I said in previous articles, I consider coffee the healthiest beverage on the planet. It is loaded with phenolic antioxidants, which have been shown to be beneficial in the prevention of heart disease, cancer, diabetes and living a longer life. There are over 200 studies that find drinking 2 to 3 cups of coffee per day is associated with a lower risk of death and heart disease compared to drinking no coffee. Also, coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of many cancers, liver disease, diabetes and dementia. A study (Food Func, 2018, January 23) found that coffee consumption promotes muscle hypertrophy. The study showed that by inhibiting myostatin expression and increasing IGF-1, coffee increases grip strength. Another study (Nutrition Journal, 2012) found that coffee drinking not only increases longevity, but also elevates testosterone levels! There are so many potential health benefits of coffee! In a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on March 5, 2019, researchers found daily coffee consumption had a very positive metabolic effect on biomarkers of metabolic and inflammatory pathways in U.S. health professionals. Daily coffee consumption lowered c-reactive protein (CRP) 16.6 percent. CRP is a measurement of systemic inflammation. Also, daily coffee increased testosterone in men 5.3 percent. This study clearly shows that daily coffee consumption has a positive effect on lowering inflammation. There are so many potential miracle powers of coffee!
Another study published April 23, 2020, in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology reported that filtered coffee is healthier than unfiltered coffee. Drinking unfiltered coffee has been shown in the past to increase cholesterol and LDL (bad cholesterol) in the blood of humans. Filtered coffee does not. Filtered coffee removes the cholesterol-raising compounds found in unfiltered coffee! Swedish researchers gathered health data from 508,747 Norwegian men and women over a period of 20 years. Drinking filtered coffee was associated with a 15% reduction in the risk of dying prematurely from any cause in both women and men. So stick with the filtered coffee rather than the unfiltered coffee as the healthiest way to make a brew!
Over the last few years, I’ve launched AML™ THERMO HEAT®, the most scientifically advanced brown fat and thermogenic supplement line ever developed! One of those products, AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN, contains nutrients that have been shown to increase brown fat activation and thermogenesis, including whey protein enriched with 5 grams of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Leucine is the key anabolic trigger of protein synthesis. Supplemental leucine by itself and synergistically combined with vitamin D3 and medium-chain-triglycerides (MCTs) can help prevent lean muscle loss especially during low-calorie, low-carb or ketogenic diets. Also, two double-blind human studies have shown that the amino acid leucine (2.4 grams daily) and citrulline (2 grams daily) can lower the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and c-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in the body. (SL Nutrition and Metabolism, September 5, 2017). (BMC Research Notes, February 15, 2019).
AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN also contains nitric oxide activators that have been shown to activate BAT and thermogenesis. Nitric oxide and nitric oxide precursors such as citrulline have been shown to increase BAT and thermogenesis. Grapeskin extract has been shown to increase nitric oxide production. Polyphenols are being studied for their role in fat metabolism and obesity management. Folic acid also boosts nitric oxide availability, by increasing BH4 and decreasing homocysteine levels. Research has shown that folic acid can lower homocysteine levels, increase insulin sensitivity and lower fasting insulin levels in type 2 diabetes. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), grains of paradise (40mg - standardized for 12% paradol, a clinically effective dose) and BioPerine® black pepper fruit extract are all included for further activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thermogenesis. Grains of paradise, a spice containing 6-paradol, like chili peppers containing capsaicin, activate BAT, increase whole-body energy expenditure and decrease visceral fat (deep abdominal fat) in humans. It also contains allulose, a natural, low-calorie, fat-burning, thermogenic sweetener. It is approved for low-sugar/low-carb or ketogenic diets. Allulose does not impact blood sugar or insulin levels.
AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN is also rich in the important electrolytes potassium and magnesium, which are important when following a weight-loss diet. Each serving contains 750mg of potassium (from potassium citrate) and 100mg of magnesium (from magnesium citrate). A new study that was published in the journal Nutrients on June 2, 2019, shows that decreased body mass index (BMI) could be obtained by increasing dietary potassium to help encourage weight loss. The researchers in the study acknowledged, “It is notable that the increase in dietary potassium was a stronger predictor of weight loss in this study than such well-established factors as a reduction in sugar consumption and in overall caloric intake.” There is evidence that low dietary potassium intake may negatively be linked to obesity. A meta-analysis and epidemiological data reported that, “studies concluded that high potassium intake was associated with a decreased odds ratio for having obesity and the MS [metabolic syndrome]” (Nutrients, 2016). Low-carb diets enhance the excretion of important electrolytes such as potassium and magnesium. Low-carb, ketogenic diets have a diuresis effect, enhancing water and electrolyte mineral losses. Also, low-carb and ketogenic diets restrict the intake of fruits, which are rich in potassium. The best vegetable sources of foods rich in potassium on a ketogenic diet are spinach, nuts and avocados.
AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN only contains 60 calories per serving. Also, unlike some other type of Keto Coffees that contain butter, coconut oil, or both, AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN coffee does not contain butter or coconut oil! Butter and coconut oil contain large amounts of saturated fat and that can raise the level of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) in the blood and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Two tablespoons of butter also contains 14 grams of saturated fat and 200 calories! Some keto coffees contain 450 calories! Also, recent research has shown that coconut oil, unlike pure MCT oil, does not increase thermogenesis. AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN coffee can not only enhance fat burning and prevent hunger in the morning, but it can also improve mental focus and is a much healthier alternative to other keto coffees.
Coffee has many health benefits and may help prevent certain diseases. Coffee can also help burn fat, boost lean body mass, improve cognitive function and exercise performance! Become a FAT BURNING MACHINE, take a scoop of AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN with your morning coffee on an empty stomach or 30 minutes before a meal. It’s convenient, it mixes instantly, and no blender is required. We have two delicious flavors in Chocolate Fudge and Vanilla Cream – they taste amazing! AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN† is an advanced, scientifically designed protein, amino acid and brown fat-activating beverage. As part of a calorie-restricted diet and exercise (aerobic and resistance training) program, it can help enhance fat loss and preserve lean body mass when following a low-calorie, low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet. A healthy weight loss is one that enhances the reduction of body fat and preserves lean body mass while dieting. You will be pleased with the results!
- van Dam RM, Hu FB, Willett WC. Coffee, Caffeine, and Health. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 23;383(4):369-378. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1816604. PMID: 32706535.
- Mackintosh C, Yuan C, Ou F, et al. Association of Coffee Intake With Survival in Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. JAMA Oncol.Published online September 17, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.3938
- Joslin Diabetes Center. Transplanted brown-fat-like cells hold promise for obesity and diabetes. ScienceDaily, 26 August 2020. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/08/200826141413.htm
- Chih-Hao Wang, Morten Lundh, Accalia Fu, Rókus Kriszt, Tian Lian Huang, Matthew D. Lynes, Luiz O. Leiria, Farnaz Shamsi, Justin Darcy, Bennett P. Greenwood, Niven R. Narain, Vladimir Tolstikov, Kyle L. Smith, Brice Emanuelli, Young-Tae Chang, Susan Hagen, Nika N. Danial, Michael A. Kiebish, Yu-Hua Tseng. CRISPR-engineered human brown-like adipocytes prevent diet-induced obesity and ameliorate metabolic syndrome in mice. Science Translational Medicine, August 26, 2020; 12 (558): eaaz8664 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz8664
- Quarantine Weight Gain Not A Joking Matter. Debbie Koenig. WebMD. May 21, 2020. https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200521/quarantine-weight-gain-not-a-joking-matter
- Chao Cao, Qinran Liu, Mohammad Abufaraj, Yunan Han, Tianlin Xu, Thomas Waldhoer, Shahrokh F Shariat, Shengxu Li, Lin Yang, Lee Smith, Regular Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Lower Regional Adiposity Measured by DXA among US Women, The Journal of Nutrition, nxaa121, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa121
- Anglia Ruskin University. Coffee linked to lower body fat in women: Compounds in coffee may have anti-obesity properties. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 May 2020. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200513200402.htm
- Tverdal A, Selmer R, Cohen JM, Thelle DS. Coffee consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and total mortality: Does the brewing method matter? [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 22]. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020;2047487320914443. doi:10.1177/2047487320914443
- Watanabe, M., Risi, R., Tuccinardi, D., Baquero, C.J., Manfrini, S. and Gnessi, L. (2020), Obesity and SARS‐CoV‐2: a population to safeguard. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/dmrr.3325
- Nicastro H, Carvalho.M, Barquilha G, Ferreira LS. Leucine Supplementation: A Possible Anti Inflammatory Strategy Evidences from a Pilot Study. SL Nutr Metab. 2017;1(1):114.
- Darabi Z, Darand M, Yari Z, et al. Inflammatory markers response to citrulline supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):89. Published 2019 Feb 15. doi:10.1186/s13104-019-4130-6
- Impaired immune cell cytotoxicity in severe COVID-19 is IL-6 dependent. Alessio Mazzoni, Francesco Annunziato, Lorenzo Cosmi. May 28, 2020. J Clin Invest. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI138554.
- Takeshi Yoneshiro et al. BCAA catabolism in brown fat controls energy homeostasis through SLC25A44. Nature, August 21, 2019 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1503-x
- Caffeine exposure induces browning features in adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo. Ksenija Velickovic, Declan Wayne, Hilda Anaid Lugo Leija, Ian Bloor, David E. Morris, James Law, Helen Budge, Harold Sacks, Michael E. Symonds & Virginie Sottile. June 24, 2019. Nature Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 9104 (6/24/2019)
- Sara Sloat. Weight Loss Study Reveals Coffee’s Role in Burning One Kind of Body Fat https://www.inverse.com/article/57059-coffee-brown-fat-caffeine-weight-lossInverse.com June 25, 2019
- Yang YJ, Son HJ, et al. Coffee consumption promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation. Food Funct 2018, 9, 1102. DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01683B.
- Wedick N, Mantzoros C, et al. The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 201211:86 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-86. Wedick et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012 Received June 14, 2012; Accepted October 16, 2012; Published October 19, 2012
- Symonds, M. E., Aldiss, P., Pope, M. & Budge, H. Recent advances in our understanding of brown and beige adipose tissue: the good fat that keeps you healthy. F1000Res 7, https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.14585.1 (2018).
- Ouellet, V. et al. Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. J Clin Invest 122, 545–552, https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI60433 (2012).
- van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D. et al. Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl JMed 360, 1500-1508, https://doi. org/10.1056/NEJMoa0808718 (2009).
- Darre, L. & Domene, C. Binding of Capsaicin to the TRPV1 Ion Channel. Mol Pharm 12, 4454-4465, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs. molpharmaceut.5b00641 (2015)
- Derbenev, A. V. & Zsombok, A. Potential therapeutic value of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in diabetes mellitus and obesity. Semin Immunopathol 38, 397-406, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-015-0529-x (2016).
- Luo, Z. et al. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1alpha upregulation in mice. Cell Res 22, 551-564, https://doi.org/10.1038/cr.2011.205 (2012).
- Astrup, A. et al. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 759-767, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/51.5.759 (1990).
- Yoon M-S. The emerging role of branched-chain amino acids in insulin resistance and metabolism. Forum Nutr, 2016; 8: 405-17.
- Binder E, Bermudez-Silva FJ, Andre C et al. Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels. PLoS One, 2013; 8:e74705.
- Zhang Y, Guo K, LeBlanc RE, Loh D, Schwartz GJ, Yu YH. Increasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanisms. Diabetes, 2007; 56: 1647-54.
- Lynch, C.J. and Adams, SH (2014) Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signaling and insulin resistance. Nat Rev Endrocrinol 10, 723-736.
- Xiao, F, Yu, J, Guo, Y, Deng, J, Li, K, et al (2014) Effects of individual branched-chain amino acids deprivation on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in mice. Metabolism 63, 841-850.
- Jang C, Oh, SF, et al A branched-chain amino acid metabolite drives vascular fatty acid transport and causes insulin resistance. Nat Med 22, 421-426
- Lotta LA, Scott RA, Sharp SJ, Burgess S, Luan J, et al. (2016) Genetic Predisposition to an Impaired Metabolism of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomisation Analysis. PLOS Medicine 13(11): e1002179. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002179
- Avogaro, A and Bier, DM (1989.) Contribution of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate to the measurement of 3-hydroxybutyrate in human plasma: comparison of enzymatic and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays in normal and in diabetic subjects. J Lipid Res 30, 1811-1817
- Alterations in 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate and FGF21 Metabolism Are Associated With Protein Ingestion-Induced Insulin Resistance Lydia-Ann LS Harris, Gordon I Smith, Bruce W Patterson, Raja S Ramaswamy et al. Diabetes 2017;66:1871-1878 https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-1475
- Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mardinoglu, Adil et al. EBioMedicine, Volume 27, 151-155, Jan. 2018.
- Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Carolina Gustavsson, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin, Louise Joelsson, and Agneta Holmäng. Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2018, Article ID 4207067, 12 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4207067.
- Macotela, Y Emanuelli, B, Bang, AM et al. (2011) Dietary leucine – an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism. PLoS One 6, e21187.
- Increasing Dietary Leucine Intake Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism in Mice via Multimechanisms. Y. Zhang, K. Guo, R.E. LeBlanc, D. Loh, G.J. Schwartz, Y. Yu Diabetes Jun 2007, 56 (6) 1647-1654; DOI: 10.2337/db07-0123
- Sina S Ullrich, Penelope CE Fitzgerald, Gudrun Schober, Robert E Steinert, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset; Intragastric administration of leucine or isoleucine lowers the blood glucose response to a mixed-nutrient drink by different mechanisms in healthy, lean volunteers, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 104, Issue 5, 1 November 2016, Pages 1274-1284, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.140640.
- Li, H, Xu, M, Lee, J, He, C, & Xie, Z (2012). Leucine supplementation increases SIRT1 expression and prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 303(10), E1234-E1244. http://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00198.2012
- Kotyczka, C., Boettler, U., Lang, R., Stiebitz, H., Bytof, G., Lantz, I., Hofmann, T., Marko, D. and Somoza, V. (2011), Dark roast coffee is more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight, and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione concentrations in healthy volunteers. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 55: 1582-1586. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201100248
- Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A. & Miller, D. S. Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and post obese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 49, 44-50, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/49.1.44 (1989).
- Kogure, A. et al. Effects of caffeine on the uncoupling protein family in obese yellow KK mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29, 391-394 (2002).
- Okano, J., Nagahara, T., Matsumoto, K. & Murawaki, Y. Caffeine inhibits the proliferation of liver cancer cells and activates the MEK/ ERK/EGFR signaling pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102, 543-551, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00231.x (2008).
- Law, J. et al. Thermal Imaging is a Noninvasive Alternative to PET/CT for Measurement of Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans. J Nucl Med 59, 516-522, https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.117.190546 (2018).
- Yoshioka, K., Yoshida, T., Kamanaru, K., Hiraoka, N. & Kondo, M. Caffeine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 36, 173-178 (1990).
- Borba GL, Batista JSF, Novais LMQ, et al. Acute Caffeine and Coconut Oil Intake, Isolated or Combined, Does Not Improve Running Times of Recreational Runners: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled and Crossover Study. Nutrients 2019;11(7):1661. Published 2019 Jul 20. doi:10.3390/nu11071661
- Acute effects of three high-fat meals with different fat saturations on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and satiety. Casas-Agustench, P. et al. Clinical Nutrition, Volume 28, Issue 1, 39-45 2009
- The effect of dietary oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids on fat oxidation and energy expenditure in healthy men. Jones, Peter J.H. et al. Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, Volume 57, Issue 9, 1198-1203
- The influence of the type of dietary fat on postprandial fat oxidation rates: monounsaturated (olive oil) vs saturated fat (cream). LS Piers, KZ Walker, RM Stoney, MJ Soares and K O’Dea. International Journal of Obesity (2002) 26, 814-821 (2002)
- Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Leigh Breen, Danielle M Di Donato, Amy J Hector, Cameron J Mitchell, Daniel R Moore, Trent Stellingwerff, Denis Breuille, Elizabeth A Offord, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips, Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 99, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 276-286, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.068775
- Chunzi Liang, Benjamin J Curry, Patricia L Brown and Michael B. Zemel. Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2014, Article ID 239750, 11 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/239750.
- Impact of 3-week citrulline supplementation on postprandial protein metabolism in malnourished older patients: The Ciproage randomized controlled trial. Bouillanne, Olivier et al. Clinical Nutrition, Volume 38, Issue 2, 564-574. April 2019
- Nitric oxide and mitochondrial biogenesis. Enzo Nisoli, Michele O. Carruba. J Cell Sci 2006 119: 2855-2862; doi: 10.1242/jcs.03062
- Allerton, T.D.; Proctor, D.N.; Stephens, J.M.; Dugas, T.R.; Spielmann, G.; Irving, B.A. l-Citrulline Supplementation: Impact on Cardiometabolic Health. Nutrients 2018, 10, 921.
- Yoshitomi H, Momoo M, Ma X, et al. L-Citrulline increases hepatic sensitivity to insulin by reducing the phosphorylation of serine 1101 in insulin receptor substrate-1. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:188. Published 2015 Jun 18. doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0706-4.
- Inflammatory markers response to citrulline supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Zahra Darabi, Mina Darand, Zahra Yari, Mehdi Hedayati, Amirhosein Faghihi, Shahram Agah and Azita Hekmatdoost. BMC Research.2019/12:89 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4130-6.
- Villareal MO, Matsukawa T, Isoda H. L-Citrulline Supplementation-Increased Skeletal Muscle PGC-1alpha Expression is Associated With Exercise Performance and Increased Skeletal Muscle Weight [published online ahead of print, 2018 Jun 25]. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62(14):e1701043. doi:10.1002/mnfr.20170104.
- Cliff J. d C. Harvey, Grant M. Schofield, Micalla Williden, and Joseph A. McQuillan. The Effect of Medium Chain Triglycerides on Time to Nutritional Ketosis and Symptoms of Keto-Induction in Healthy Adults: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2018, Article ID 2630565, 9 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2630565.
- Li H, Xu M, Lee J, He C and Xie Z. (2012). Leucine supplementation increases SIRT1 expression and prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 303(10), E1234-E1244. http://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00198.2012
- Tsuboi T, Maeda M, Hayashi T. Administration of L-arginine plus L-citrulline or L-citrulline alone successfully retarded endothelial senescence. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0192252. Published 2018 Feb 7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0192252
- Miriam E. Clegg (2010) Medium-chain triglycerides are advantageous in promoting weight loss although not beneficial to exercise performance, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 61:7, 653-679, DOI: 10.3109/09637481003702114
- Activation of the AMPK/Sirt1 pathway by a leucine-metformin combination increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, and stimulates glucose and lipid metabolism and increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegans. Banerjee, Jheelam et al. Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental, Volume 65, Issue 11, 1679-1691. November 2016.
- Romero, M. J., Platt, D. H., Caldwell, R. B. and Caldwell, R. W. (2006), Therapeutic Use of Citrulline in Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, 24: 275-290. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3466.2006.00275.x
- Zhang Y, Guo K, LeBlanc RE, Loh D, Schwartz GJ, Yu YH. Increasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanisms. Diabetes 2007; 56: 164754.
- Grape seed and skin extract mitigates heart and liver oxidative damage induced by a high-fat diet in the rat: gender dependency. Kamel Charradi, Mohamed Mahmoudi, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 2013, 91:1076-1085, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2013-0225
- Dong Hang, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Wenjie Ma, Yang Hu, Fred K Tabung, Hongmei Nan, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Lorelei A Mucci, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Mingyang Song. Coffee consumption and plasma biomarkers of metabolic and inflammatory pathways in US health professionals, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 109, Issue 3, March 2019, Pages 635-647, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy295
- Joffin N, Jaubert AM, Bamba J, Barouki R, Noirez P, Forest C. Acute induction of uncoupling protein 1 by citrulline in cultured explants of white adipose tissue from lean and high-fat-diet-fed rats. Adipocyte. 2015;4(2):129-34. Published 2015 Jan 7. doi:10.4161/21623945.2014.989748
- Joffin, N., Jaubert, A., Durant, S., Bastin, J., De Bandt, J., Cynober, L., Moinard, C., Coumoul, X., Forest, C. and Noirez, P. (2014), Citrulline reduces glyceroneogenesis and induces fatty acid release in visceral adipose tissue from overweight rats. Mol Nutr Food Res, 58: 2320-2330. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400507
- Salehpour A, Hosseinpanah F, Shidfar F, et al. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D₃ supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women. Nutr J. 2012;11:78. Published 2012 Sep 22. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-7
- Vitamin D decreases adipocyte lipid storage and increases NAD-SIRT1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Chang, Eugene; Kim, Yangha. Nutrition, 2016, Vol: 32, Issue: 6, Page: 702-8 10.1016/j.nut.2015.12.032
- Miriam E. Clegg (2010) Medium-chain triglycerides are advantageous in promoting weight loss although not beneficial to exercise performance, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 61:7, 653-679, DOI: 10.3109/09637481003702114
- LaBarrie J, St-Onge MP. A coconut oil-rich meal does not enhance thermogenesis compared to corn oil in a randomized trial in obese adolescents. Insights Nutr Metab. 2017;1(1):30-3
- Farhat, G., Drummond, S., and Al‐Dujaili, E. A. S. (2017) Polyphenols and Their Role in Obesity Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. Phytother. Res., 31: 1005-1018. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5830.
- Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., Hatano, T., Aita, S., Ikemoto, T., Uchiwa, H., Saito, M. (2013). Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(4), 733-738. doi:10.1017/S0007114512005715
- Jun Sugita, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Yuuki Sugishima, Takeshi Ikemoto, Hideyo Uchiwa, Isao Suzuki, Masayuki Saito, Daily Ingestion of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) Extract Increases Whole-Body Energy Expenditure and Decreases Visceral Fat in Humans, Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 2014, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 22-27, Released April 24, 2014.
- Hattori, H., Yamauchi, K., Onwona‐Agyeman, S. and Mitsunaga, T. (2018), Identification of vanilloid compounds in grains of paradise and their effects on sympathetic nerve activity. J Sci Food Agric, 98: 4742-4748. doi:10.1002/jsfa.9009
- Ross S. Mancini, Yanfei Wang, Donald F. Weaver. Phenylindanes in Brewed Coffee Inhibit Amyloid-Beta and Tau Aggregation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2018; 12 DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00735
- University Health Network. Drinking coffee may reduce your chances of developing Alzheimer's, Parkinson's. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 November 2018. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181105160825.htm
- Ilic NM, Dey M, Poulev AA, Logendra S, Kuhn PE, Raskin I. Anti-inflammatory activity of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta Schum) extract. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(43):10452-7.
- Increment in Dietary Potassium Predicts Weight Loss in the Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome Brurya Tal, Jessica Sack, Marianna Yaron, Gabi Shefer, Assaf Buch, Limor Ben Haim, Yonit Marcus, Galina Shenkerman, Yael Sofer, Lili Shefer, Miri Margaliot and Naftali Stern. Nutrients June 2,2019, 11(6), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061256.
- Cai, X.; Li, X.; Fan, W.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.; Li, Z.; Scott, E.M.; Li, X. Potassium and Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Epidemiological Evidence. Nutrients March 25, 2016, 183, 8.
- THE THERMO HEAT® LOW-CARB MEDITERRANEAN DIET: WHY IT’S THE HEALTHIEST & BEST DIET FOR 2019 by Steve Blechman, https://advancedmolecularlabs.com/blogs/news/the-thermo-heat%C2%AE-low-carb-mediterranean-diet-why-it-s-the-healthiest-best-diet-for-2019
- The Thermo Heat® Weight Loss Revolution, by Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D, including the foreword by Daniel L. Friedman, MD and Eugene B Friedman, MD.