BROWN FAT REVOLUTION: THE ULTIMATE FAT-BURNING COFFEE
Posted on August 30 2019
By Steve Blechman
A true revolution absolutely requires a paradigm shift that fundamentally contradicts previously held notions. The wildly held belief that all body fat is bad is currently being heavily scrutinized, due to the recent discovery of a different type of fat in humans known as brown fat. This type of body fat can actually burn off energy in the form of heat by a process known as thermogenesis, which can ultimately reduce overall body fat. This discovery has provided the requisite paradigm shift spawning a new revolution in weight loss that is the primary focus of the book Thermo Heat™ Weight Loss Revolution by Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D. that includes the foreword by Daniel L. Friedman, MD and Eugene B. Friedman, MD. You can click the link to order on Amazon here published by Advanced Research Media, Inc. You can also get a free PDF version here
The body has two forms of fat: white fat, or unwanted fat that can lie directly underneath the skin, and brown fat, which often is found in the shoulder blade region or the neck. Unlike white fat, brown fat is the good fat as it can help burn more calories. The more brown fat you have, the more calories you burn.
Brown fat is packed with mitochondria loaded with UCP-1, the protein that uncouples fat burning with ATP (energy) production instead of converting the energy into heat via thermogenesis, making the mitochondria effectively the furnace of the cell. The emergence of brown fat as a readily available fat-burning furnace is revolutionary, but like any fire, it requires the proper kindling materials. The ability to get lean by producing extra brown fat, or enhancing the activity of existing brown fat, represents a promising way to burn fat and lose weight.
Several landmark discoveries and approaches to enhancing brown fat function are being explored at major research centers and universities worldwide, with great excitement. Brown fat research is a hot topic today (see my latest article entitled BROWN FAT BREAKTHROUGH! For Obesity and Diabetes).
In a most recent breakthrough study published in the prestigious journal Nature (August 21, 2019), researchers discovered how brown fat can help to protect against obesity and diabetes. The Nature study says, “Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) supplementation is often beneficial to energy expenditure; however, increased circulating levels of BCAAs are linked to obesity and diabetes. The mechanisms of this paradox remain unclear. Here we report that, on cold exposure, brown adipose tissue (BAT) actively utilizes BCAAs in the mitochondria for thermogenesis and promotes systemic BCAA clearance in mice and humans.” The valine catabolite-3-hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB) has been shown to promote accumulation of body fat and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Unlike leucine, which avoids insulin resistance by increasing mitochondrial-driven fat loss, valine does not encourage mitochondrial biogenesis. Impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle is one of the major predisposing factors to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Leucine supplementation increases brown fat thermogenesis, energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity by activating SIRT1 activity. SIRT1 is known to “promote mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity and prevent the mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle” (Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2014). Leucine may also prevent fat storage and promote weight loss during energy restriction (Nutrition 2006, Diabetes, 2007). These effects are in part by activating the SIRT1-dependent pathway, stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis, brown fat thermogenesis and oxygen consumption (Nutrition Metabolism, 2008). Mitochondrial biogenesis and SIRT1 expression in skeletal muscle has also been shown to increase life span in middle-aged mice (Cell Metabolism, 2010). As far as isoleucine is concerned, unlike valine, it has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity by increasing glucose into muscle cells (Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2007).
On Monday, June 24, 2019 in the prestigious journal Nature Scientific Reports, a breakthrough weight loss/fat loss study was published entitled: “Coffee Exposure Induces Browning Features in Adipose Tissue In Vitro and In Vivo.” The researchers said, “It is the first study in humans to show that something like a cup of coffee can have a direct effect on brown fat functions.” British researchers from the University of Nottingham found that one cup of coffee containing only 65mg of caffeine can activate brown fat. Brown fat is an organ that is extremely metabolically active. It’s like a generator that produces heat, which helps burn more calories. We only have 50 to 100 grams of brown fat, mainly located behind the neck and scapula, as I mentioned earlier. Brown fat produces 300 times more heat than our muscles or any organ in the body! If we can increase the amount of brown fat or activate more brown fat cells, you will burn more calories over a 24-hour period.
As I said in previous articles, I consider coffee the healthiest beverage on the planet. It is loaded with phenolic antioxidants, which have been shown to be beneficial in the prevention of heart disease, cancer, diabetes and living a longer life. There are over 200 studies that find drinking two to three cups of coffee per day is associated with a lower risk of death and heart disease compared to drinking no coffee. Also, coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of many cancers, liver disease, diabetes and dementia. A study (Food Func, 2018, January 23) found that coffee consumption promotes muscle hypertrophy. The study showed that by inhibiting myostatin expression and increasing IGF-1, coffee increases grip strength. Another study (Nutrition Journal, 2012) found that coffee drinking not only increases longevity, but also elevates testosterone levels! There are so many potential health benefits of coffee! In a most recent study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on March 5, 2019, researchers found daily coffee consumption had a very positive metabolic effect on biomarkers of metabolic and inflammatory pathways in U.S. health professionals. Daily coffee consumption lowered c-reactive protein (CRP) 16.6 percent. CRP is a measurement of systemic inflammation. Also, daily coffee increased testosterone in men 5.3 percent. This study clearly shows that daily coffee consumption has a positive effect on lowering inflammation. There are so many potential miracle powers of coffee!
Over the last few years, I’ve launched AML® THERMO HEAT, the most scientifically advanced brown fat and thermogenic supplement line ever developed! One of those products, AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN, contains nutrients that have been shown to increase brown fat activation and thermogenesis, including whey protein enriched with 5 grams of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Leucine is the key anabolic trigger of protein synthesis. Supplemental leucine by itself and synergistically combined with vitamin D3 and medium-chain-triglycerides (MCTs) can help prevent lean muscle loss especially during low-calorie, low-carb or ketogenic diets.
AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN also contains nitric oxide activators that have been shown to activate BAT and thermogenesis. Nitric oxide and nitric oxide precursors such as citrulline have been shown to increase BAT and thermogenesis. Grapeskin extract has been shown to increase nitric oxide production. Polyphenols are being studied for their role in fat metabolism and obesity management. Folic acid also boosts nitric oxide availability, by increasing BH4 and decreasing homocysteine levels. Research has shown that folic acid can lower homocysteine levels, increase insulin sensitivity and lower fasting insulin levels in type 2 diabetes. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), grains of paradise (40mg - standardized for 12% paradol, a clinically effective dose) and BioPerine® black pepper fruit extract are all included for further activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thermogenesis. Grains of paradise, a spice containing 6-paradol, like chili peppers containing capsaicin, activate BAT, increase whole-body energy expenditure and decrease visceral fat (deep abdominal fat) in humans. It also contains allulose, a natural, low-calorie, fat-burning, thermogenic sweetener. It is approved for low-sugar/low-carb or ketogenic diets. Allulose does not impact blood sugar or insulin levels.
AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN is also rich in the important electrolytes potassium and magnesium, which are important when following a weight-loss diet. Each serving contains 750mg of potassium (from potassium citrate) and 100mg of magnesium (from magnesium citrate). A new study that was published in the journal Nutrients on June 2, 2019, shows that decreased body mass index (BMI) could be obtained by increasing dietary potassium to help encourage weight loss. The researchers in the study acknowledged, “It is notable that the increase in dietary potassium was a stronger predictor of weight loss in this study than such well-established factors as a reduction in sugar consumption and in overall caloric intake.” There is evidence that low dietary potassium intake may negatively be linked to obesity. A meta-analysis and epidemiological data reported that, “studies concluded that high potassium intake was associated with a decreased odds ratio for having obesity and the MS [metabolic syndrome]” (Nutrients, 2016). Low-carb diets enhance the excretion of important electrolytes such as potassium and magnesium. Low-carb, ketogenic diets have a diuresis effect, enhancing water and electrolyte mineral losses. Also, low-carb and ketogenic diets restrict the intake of fruits, which are rich in potassium. The best vegetable sources of foods rich in potassium on a ketogenic diet are spinach, nuts and avocados.
AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN only contains 60 calories per serving. Also, unlike some other type of Keto Coffees that contain butter, coconut oil, or both, AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN coffee does not contain butter or coconut oil! Butter and coconut oil contain large amounts of saturated fat and that can raise the level of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) in the blood and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Two tablespoons of butter also contains 14 grams of saturated fat and 200 calories! Some keto coffees contain 450 calories! Also, recent research has shown that coconut oil, unlike pure MCT oil, does not increase thermogenesis. AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN coffee can not only enhance fat burning and prevent hunger in the morning, but it can also improve mental focus and is a much healthier alternative to other keto coffees.
Coffee has many health benefits and may help prevent certain diseases. Coffee can also help burn fat, boost lean body mass, improve cognitive function and exercise performance! Become a FAT BURNING MACHINE, take a scoop of AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN with your morning coffee on an empty stomach or 30 minutes before a meal. It’s convenient, it mixes instantly, and no blender is required. We have two delicious flavors in Chocolate Fudge and Vanilla Cream – they taste amazing! AML™ THERMO HEAT® FAT BURNING PROTEIN† is an advanced, scientifically designed protein, amino acid and brown fat-activating beverage. As part of a calorie-restricted diet and exercise (aerobic and resistance training) program, it can help enhance fat loss and preserve lean body mass when following a low-calorie, low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet. A healthy weight loss is one that enhances the reduction of body fat and preserves lean body mass while dieting. You will be pleased with the results!
- Takeshi Yoneshiro et al. BCAA catabolism in brown fat controls energy homeostasis through SLC25A44. Nature, August 21, 2019 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1503-x
- Caffeine exposure induces browning features in adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo. Ksenija Velickovic, Declan Wayne, Hilda Anaid Lugo Leija, Ian Bloor, David E. Morris, James Law, Helen Budge, Harold Sacks, Michael E. Symonds & Virginie Sottile. June 24, 2019. Nature Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 9104 (6/24/2019)
- Sara Sloat. Weight Loss Study Reveals Coffee’s Role in Burning One Kind of Body Fat https://www.inverse.com/article/57059-coffee-brown-fat-caffeine-weight-lossInverse.com June 25, 2019.
- Yang YJ, Son HJ, et al. Coffee consumption promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation. Food Funct 2018, 9, 1102. DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01683B.
- Wedick N, Mantzoros C, et al. The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 201211:86 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-86. Wedick et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012 Received June 14, 2012; Accepted October 16, 2012; Published October 19, 2012
- Symonds, M. E., Aldiss, P., Pope, M. & Budge, H. Recent advances in our understanding of brown and beige adipose tissue: the good fat that keeps you healthy. F1000Res 7, https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.14585.1 (2018).
- Ouellet, V. et al. Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. J Clin Invest 122, 545–552, https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI60433 (2012).
- van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D. et al. Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 360, 1500-1508, https://doi. org/10.1056/NEJMoa0808718 (2009).
- Darre, L. & Domene, C. Binding of Capsaicin to the TRPV1 Ion Channel. Mol Pharm 12, 4454–4465, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs. molpharmaceut.5b00641 (2015)
- Derbenev, A. V. & Zsombok, A. Potential therapeutic value of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in diabetes mellitus and obesity. Semin Immunopathol 38, 397-406, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-015-0529-x (2016).
- Luo, Z. et al. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1alpha upregulation in mice. Cell Res 22, 551-564, https://doi.org/10.1038/cr.2011.205 (2012).
- Astrup, A. et al. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 759-767, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/51.5.759 (1990).
- Yoon M-S. The emerging role of branched-chain amino acids in insulin resistance and metabolism. Forum Nutr, 2016; 8: 405-17.
- Binder E, Bermudez-Silva FJ, Andre C et al. Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels. PLoS One, 2013; 8:e74705.
- Zhang Y, Guo K, LeBlanc RE, Loh D, Schwartz GJ, Yu YH. Increasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanisms. Diabetes, 2007; 56: 1647-54.
- Lynch, C.J. and Adams, SH (2014) Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signaling and insulin resistance. Nat Rev Endrocrinol 10, 723-736.
- Xiao, F, Yu, J, Guo, Y, Deng, J, Li, K, et al (2014) Effects of individual branched-chain amino acids deprivation on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in mice. Metabolism 63, 841-850.
- Jang C, Oh, SF, et al A branched-chain amino acid metabolite drives vascular fatty acid transport and causes insulin resistance. Nat Med 22, 421-426
- Lotta LA, Scott RA, Sharp SJ, Burgess S, Luan J, et al. (2016) Genetic Predisposition to an Impaired Metabolism of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomisation Analysis. PLOS Medicine 13(11): e1002179. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002179
- Avogaro, A and Bier, DM (1989.) Contribution of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate to the measurement of 3-hydroxybutyrate in human plasma: comparison of enzymatic and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays in normal and in diabetic subjects. J Lipid Res 30, 1811-1817
- Alterations in 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate and FGF21 Metabolism Are Associated With Protein Ingestion–Induced Insulin Resistance Lydia-Ann LS Harris, Gordon I Smith, Bruce W Patterson, Raja S Ramaswamy et al. Diabetes 2017;66:1871-1878 https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-1475
- Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mardinoglu, Adil et al. EBioMedicine, Volume 27, 151-155, Jan. 2018.
- Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Carolina Gustavsson, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin, Louise Joelsson, and Agneta Holmäng. Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2018, Article ID 4207067, 12 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4207067.
- Macotela, Y Emanuelli, B, Bang, AM et al. (2011) Dietary leucine – an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism. PLoS One 6, e21187.
- Increasing Dietary Leucine Intake Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism in Mice via Multimechanisms. Y. Zhang, K. Guo, R.E. LeBlanc, D. Loh, G.J. Schwartz, Y. Yu Diabetes Jun 2007, 56 (6) 1647-1654; DOI: 10.2337/db07-0123
- Sina S Ullrich, Penelope CE Fitzgerald, Gudrun Schober, Robert E Steinert, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset; Intragastric administration of leucine or isoleucine lowers the blood glucose response to a mixed-nutrient drink by different mechanisms in healthy, lean volunteers, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 104, Issue 5, 1 November 2016, Pages 1274-1284, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.140640.
- Li, H, Xu, M, Lee, J, He, C, & Xie, Z (2012). Leucine supplementation increases SIRT1 expression and prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 303(10), E1234-E1244. http://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00198.2012
- Kotyczka, C., Boettler, U., Lang, R., Stiebitz, H., Bytof, G., Lantz, I., Hofmann, T., Marko, D. and Somoza, V. (2011), Dark roast coffee is more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight, and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione concentrations in healthy volunteers. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 55: 1582-1586. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201100248
- Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A. & Miller, D. S. Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and post obese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 49, 44-50, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/49.1.44 (1989).
- Kogure, A. et al. Effects of caffeine on the uncoupling protein family in obese yellow KK mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29, 391-394 (2002).
- Okano, J., Nagahara, T., Matsumoto, K. & Murawaki, Y. Caffeine inhibits the proliferation of liver cancer cells and activates the MEK/ ERK/EGFR signaling pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102, 543-551, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00231.x (2008).
- Law, J. et al. Thermal Imaging is a Noninvasive Alternative to PET/CT for Measurement of Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans. J Nucl Med 59, 516-522, https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.117.190546 (2018).
- Yoshioka, K., Yoshida, T., Kamanaru, K., Hiraoka, N. & Kondo, M. Caffeine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 36, 173-178 (1990).
- Borba GL, Batista JSF, Novais LMQ, et al. Acute Caffeine and Coconut Oil Intake, Isolated or Combined, Does Not Improve Running Times of Recreational Runners: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled and Crossover Study. Nutrients 2019;11(7):1661. Published 2019 Jul 20. doi:10.3390/nu11071661
- Acute effects of three high-fat meals with different fat saturations on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and satiety. Casas-Agustench, P. et al. Clinical Nutrition, Volume 28, Issue 1, 39-45 2009
- The effect of dietary oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids on fat oxidation and energy expenditure in healthy men. Jones, Peter J.H. et al. Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, Volume 57, Issue 9, 1198-1203
- The influence of the type of dietary fat on postprandial fat oxidation rates: monounsaturated (olive oil) vs saturated fat (cream). LS Piers, KZ Walker, RM Stoney, MJ Soares and K O’Dea. International Journal of Obesity (2002) 26, 814-821 (2002)
- Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Leigh Breen, Danielle M Di Donato, Amy J Hector, Cameron J Mitchell, Daniel R Moore, Trent Stellingwerff, Denis Breuille, Elizabeth A Offord, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips, Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 99, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 276-286, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.068775
- Chunzi Liang, Benjamin J Curry, Patricia L Brown and Michael B. Zemel. Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2014, Article ID 239750, 11 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/239750.
- Impact of 3-week citrulline supplementation on postprandial protein metabolism in malnourished older patients: The Ciproage randomized controlled trial. Bouillanne, Olivier et al. Clinical Nutrition, Volume 38, Issue 2, 564-574. April 2019
- Nitric oxide and mitochondrial biogenesis. Enzo Nisoli, Michele O. Carruba. J Cell Sci 2006 119: 2855-2862; doi: 10.1242/jcs.03062
- Allerton, T.D.; Proctor, D.N.; Stephens, J.M.; Dugas, T.R.; Spielmann, G.; Irving, B.A. l-Citrulline Supplementation: Impact on Cardiometabolic Health. Nutrients 2018, 10, 921.
- Yoshitomi H, Momoo M, Ma X, et al. L-Citrulline increases hepatic sensitivity to insulin by reducing the phosphorylation of serine 1101 in insulin receptor substrate-1. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:188. Published 2015 Jun 18. doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0706-4.
- Inflammatory markers response to citrulline supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Zahra Darabi, Mina Darand, Zahra Yari, Mehdi Hedayati, Amirhosein Faghihi, Shahram Agah and Azita Hekmatdoost. BMC Research.2019/12:89 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4130-6.
- Villareal MO, Matsukawa T, Isoda H. L-Citrulline Supplementation-Increased Skeletal Muscle PGC-1alpha Expression is Associated With Exercise Performance and Increased Skeletal Muscle Weight [published online ahead of print, 2018 Jun 25]. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62(14):e1701043. doi:10.1002/mnfr.20170104.
- Cliff J. d C. Harvey, Grant M. Schofield, Micalla Williden, and Joseph A. McQuillan. The Effect of Medium Chain Triglycerides on Time to Nutritional Ketosis and Symptoms of Keto-Induction in Healthy Adults: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2018, Article ID 2630565, 9 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2630565.
- Li H, Xu M, Lee J, He C and Xie Z. (2012). Leucine supplementation increases SIRT1 expression and prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 303(10), E1234-E1244. http://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00198.2012
- Tsuboi T, Maeda M, Hayashi T. Administration of L-arginine plus L-citrulline or L-citrulline alone successfully retarded endothelial senescence. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0192252. Published 2018 Feb 7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0192252
- Miriam E. Clegg (2010) Medium-chain triglycerides are advantageous in promoting weight loss although not beneficial to exercise performance, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 61:7, 653-679, DOI: 10.3109/09637481003702114
- Activation of the AMPK/Sirt1 pathway by a leucine-metformin combination increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, and stimulates glucose and lipid metabolism and increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegans. Banerjee, Jheelam et al. Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental, Volume 65, Issue 11, 1679-1691. November 2016.
- Romero, M. J., Platt, D. H., Caldwell, R. B. and Caldwell, R. W. (2006), Therapeutic Use of Citrulline in Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, 24: 275-290. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3466.2006.00275.x
- Zhang Y, Guo K, LeBlanc RE, Loh D, Schwartz GJ, Yu YH. Increasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanisms. Diabetes 2007; 56: 164754.
- Grape seed and skin extract mitigates heart and liver oxidative damage induced by a high-fat diet in the rat: gender dependency. Kamel Charradi, Mohamed Mahmoudi, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 2013, 91:1076-1085, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2013-0225
- Dong Hang, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Wenjie Ma, Yang Hu, Fred K Tabung, Hongmei Nan, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Lorelei A Mucci, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Mingyang Song. Coffee consumption and plasma biomarkers of metabolic and inflammatory pathways in US health professionals, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 109, Issue 3, March 2019, Pages 635-647, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy295
- Joffin N, Jaubert AM, Bamba J, Barouki R, Noirez P, Forest C. Acute induction of uncoupling protein 1 by citrulline in cultured explants of white adipose tissue from lean and high-fat-diet-fed rats. Adipocyte. 2015;4(2):129-34. Published 2015 Jan 7. doi:10.4161/21623945.2014.989748
- Joffin, N., Jaubert, A., Durant, S., Bastin, J., De Bandt, J., Cynober, L., Moinard, C., Coumoul, X., Forest, C. and Noirez, P. (2014), Citrulline reduces glyceroneogenesis and induces fatty acid release in visceral adipose tissue from overweight rats. Mol Nutr Food Res, 58: 2320-2330. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400507
- Salehpour A, Hosseinpanah F, Shidfar F, et al. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D₃ supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women. Nutr J. 2012;11:78. Published 2012 Sep 22. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-7
- Vitamin D decreases adipocyte lipid storage and increases NAD-SIRT1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Chang, Eugene; Kim, Yangha. Nutrition, 2016, Vol: 32, Issue: 6, Page: 702-8 10.1016/j.nut.2015.12.032
- Miriam E. Clegg (2010) Medium-chain triglycerides are advantageous in promoting weight loss although not beneficial to exercise performance, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 61:7, 653-679, DOI: 10.3109/09637481003702114
- LaBarrie J, St-Onge MP. A coconut oil-rich meal does not enhance thermogenesis compared to corn oil in a randomized trial in obese adolescents. Insights Nutr Metab. 2017;1(1):30-3
- Farhat, G., Drummond, S., and Al‐Dujaili, E. A. S. (2017) Polyphenols and Their Role in Obesity Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. Phytother. Res., 31: 1005-1018. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5830.
- Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., Hatano, T., Aita, S., Ikemoto, T., Uchiwa, H., Saito, M. (2013). Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(4), 733-738. doi:10.1017/S0007114512005715
- Jun Sugita, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Yuuki Sugishima, Takeshi Ikemoto, Hideyo Uchiwa, Isao Suzuki, Masayuki Saito, Daily Ingestion of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) Extract Increases Whole-Body Energy Expenditure and Decreases Visceral Fat in Humans, Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 2014, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 22-27, Released April 24, 2014.
- Hattori, H., Yamauchi, K., Onwona‐Agyeman, S. and Mitsunaga, T. (2018), Identification of vanilloid compounds in grains of paradise and their effects on sympathetic nerve activity. J Sci Food Agric, 98: 4742-4748. doi:10.1002/jsfa.9009
- Ross S. Mancini, Yanfei Wang, Donald F. Weaver. Phenylindanes in Brewed Coffee Inhibit Amyloid-Beta and Tau Aggregation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2018; 12 DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00735
- University Health Network. Drinking coffee may reduce your chances of developing Alzheimer's, Parkinson's. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 November 2018. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181105160825.htm
- Ilic NM, Dey M, Poulev AA, Logendra S, Kuhn PE, Raskin I. Anti-inflammatory activity of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta Schum) extract. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(43):10452-7.
- Increment in Dietary Potassium Predicts Weight Loss in the Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome Brurya Tal, Jessica Sack, Marianna Yaron, Gabi Shefer, Assaf Buch, Limor Ben Haim, Yonit Marcus, Galina Shenkerman, Yael Sofer, Lili Shefer, Miri Margaliot and Naftali Stern. Nutrients June 2,2019, 11(6), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061256.
- Cai, X.; Li, X.; Fan, W.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.; Li, Z.; Scott, E.M.; Li, X. Potassium and Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Epidemiological Evidence. Nutrients March 25, 2016, 183, 8.
- THE THERMO HEAT® LOW-CARB MEDITERRANEAN DIET: WHY IT’S THE HEALTHIEST & BEST DIET FOR 2019 by Steve Blechman, https://advancedmolecularlabs.com/blogs/news/the-thermo-heat%C2%AE-low-carb-mediterranean-diet-why-it-s-the-healthiest-best-diet-for-2019
- The Thermo Heat® Weight Loss Revolution, by Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D, including the foreword by Daniel L. Friedman, MD and Eugene B Friedman, MD.