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science nutrition blog

science nutrition <strong>blog</strong>

By Steve Blechman


What amazes me the most when looking at pre- and post-workout products on the market today is that they all are lacking in adequate amounts of the electrolytes: potassium and magnesium! Most pre-workouts contain stimulants such as caffeine, which can increase heart rate and blood pressure in susceptible individuals. Potassium and magnesium have been shown to lower blood pressure, likely due to the capacity to increase vasodilation, which reduces blood pressure. So should you take potassium before or after workout? It might be beneficial to include it before and after.

Research shows that 400 mg of caffeine is best for increasing aerobic and anaerobic performance! This is the same amount found in AML PRE-WORKOUT®. AML PRE WORKOUT® also contains 8 grams of citrulline malate, 800 mcg (micrograms) of folic acid as well as grape skin extracts, which have been shown to be powerful stimulators of nitric oxide for an added influence on vasodilation and performance enhancement.

 Each serving of AML PRE WORKOUT® and AML POST WORKOUT® contains 500 mg of potassium from potassium citrate and 100 mg of magnesium from magnesium citrate. Research has shown that dietary potassium and magnesium can lower blood pressure. Also, increased potassium and magnesium intake promotes vasodilation by increasing nitric oxide and prostacyclin leading to improved blood flow, endothelial function and lower blood pressure.

 Potassium and magnesium citrate have the capacity to bolster cardiovascular performance for improved endurance. Furthermore, potassium and magnesium citrate have been shown to improve exercise performance by buffering lactic acid buildup in muscle, further improving exercise performance, power and strength. Potassium and magnesium citrate act as a blood buffer by increasing pH in the extracellular environment and increasing the gradient between the blood and active muscle.

 Magnesium is a mineral involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions. It promotes protein synthesis, regulates energy production, oxygen uptake, central nervous system function, electrolyte balance, glucose metabolism, insulin function and muscle activity, including the heart. Low potassium and magnesium levels may cause muscle cramps. Also, long-term treatment with potassium citrate has been shown to be effective in prevention of kidney stones. Excessive exercise causes fluid loss and dehydration and can increase the risk of kidney stones because of dehydration. Adequate potassium and magnesium citrate can help prevent kidney stones. Also, potassium citrate has been shown to prevent kidney stones in people on a high-fat, low-carb ketogenic diet. A low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet can also increase acid load in the blood. Urinary magnesium levels, urinary citrate and pH are decreased. Hyperacidity can cause chronic acidosis and enhance muscle protein breakdown and bone loss. Intense training and adequate potassium and magnesium citrate might protect against metabolic acidosis in athletes consuming large amounts of protein.

 A study from the University of Parma, Italy found that magnesium levels were highly related to levels of the anabolic hormones testosterone and IGF-1 in men (International Journal Andrology, published online June 15, 2011). Highly active people may develop magnesium and potassium deficiencies because of excess losses in sweat and urine.

 Sodium bicarbonate has been shown to improve anaerobic performance and strength by buffering lactic acid. The problem with sodium bicarbonate is that it is not well tolerated and causes gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. Potassium and magnesium citrate is a preferred buffering agent and well tolerated by the GI tract.

 Potassium and magnesium citrate are osmoprotectants when combined with the osmolytes: creatine monohydrate and betaine. Creatine monohydrate and betaine enhances muscle hydration, maintains cell volume and fluid balance. AML PRE-WORKOUT® and AML POST WORKOUT® formulas improve fluid balance in muscle for greater strength gains and muscle protein synthesis. So why choose whether you should take potassium before or after workout? Potassium and magnesium citrate is a vital aid in both pre- and post-workout formulas. It’s clearly the missing link in pre- and post-workout formulas!



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Kidney Stones and the Ketogenic Diet: Risk Factors and Prevention. Amitha Sampath, BA, Eric H. Kossoff, MD, Susan L. Furth, MD, Paula L. Pyzik, BS, and Eileen P. G. Vining, MD, Journal of Child Neurology, Vol 22, Issue 4, pp. 375-378. First Published April 1, 2007

Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids? Requena, B. et al. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(1), 2134-224

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Acute versus chronic supplementation of sodium citrate on 200 m performance in adolescent swimmers Colin Russell, Efthymios Papadopoulos, Yasmeen Mezil, Greg D Wells, Michael J Plyley, Mathew Greenway and Panagiota Klentrou Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 201411:26

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Long-Term Treatment with Potassium Citrate and Renal Stones in Medullary Sponge Kidney. Fabris A, Lupo A, Bernich P, et al. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2010;5(9):1663-1668. doi:10.2215/CJN.00220110.

Effect of Potassium Citrate Therapy on the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight. Whitson, Peggy A, et al. The Journal of Urology, Volume 182, Issue 5, 2490-2496

Empiric use of Oral Potassium Citrate Reduces Symptomatic Kidney Stone Incidence with the Ketogenic Diet. McNally MA, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, Hamdy RF, Kossoff EH. Pediatrics. 2009;124(2):e300-e304 doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0217

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Bioavailability of Potassium and Magnesium, and Citraturic Response from Potassium-Magnesium Citrate, K. Koenig et al The Journal of Urology. Volume 145, Issue 2, February 1991, Pages 330-334.

Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players. Diana Aguiar Santos, et al. Magnesium Research. 2012;24(4):215-219. doi:10.1684/mrh.2011.0290

Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men. International journal of Andrology. Maggio M, Ceda GP, Lauretani F, et al. 2011;34(6 0 2):e594-e600. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01193.x

The Role of Magnesium in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease. Houston, M. (2011), The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 13: 843-847. doi:10.1111/j.1751-7176.2011.00538.x

Effect of magnesium supplementation on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Darooghegi Mofrad, Manije, et al. Atherosclerosis, Volume 273, 98-105

Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure. Essi S SarkkinenEmail author, Mika J Kastarinen, et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:88

Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. L Kass, J Weekes & L Carpenter. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 66, pages 411-418 (2012)

Dietary potassium and cardiovascular profile. Khitan ZJ, Shweihat YR, Tzamaloukas AH and Shapiro JI. Results from the modification of diet in renal disease dataset. 2/2018. J Clin Hypertens, 20: 611-612. doi:10.1111/jch.13207

Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance? Zhang Y, Xun P, Wang R, Mao L, He K. Nutrients 2017, 9, 946

The Interplay between Magnesium and Testosterone in Modulating Physical Function in Men. Maggio M, De Vita F, Lauretani F, et al. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2014;2014:525249. doi:10.1155/2014/525249.